relations between Ukraine and Norway through the 9th to 20th century
In this article, I present a revised text of the Institute History of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences conducted research in Ukraine. This research development of relations with Ukraine through Norwegian decade centuries.
Several facts are presented, but there are sagas of various myths and stories that contribute to communication and relationship between the two countries. We be aware that some of the sagas and legends are not supported by written documentation is in Ukraine, so we must be cautious in the strength of the relationship has been over time. But it is equally true that the Ukrainians and the Norwegians have had a close relationship and the mixture of the two countries, people are clearly documented and is still ongoing.
My interest in this country began in the first place a strict business sense, and later evolved to hire on a personal level I met my current wife in Ukraine. His spirit has guided me to write these words and find as much information as possible about the relationship between the two countries, and that I am in Norway.
The increasing globalization taking place in the world today and possibly the future, makes this blend countries also increased, both in private and commercial. Ukraine is rapidly developing a high technology supplier of agricultural products in the world. Besides foreign investors find this very interesting country because it flowers in its market economy.
It is possible to trace the relations between Ukraine and Norway lands over a thousand years behind time. We will try to give an overview of these relationships since the founding of Kievan Rus to the establishment of independent Ukraine in 1991.
Vikings in Kievan Rus.
Scandinavians have played a role instrumental in the formation of the first state in Kiev. In the eighth century the Scandinavian population 14 were called Normans. The famous chronicle “The Tale of yesteryear” contains a legend in ancient Slavic tribes inviting Rus Vikings to reach and become leaders. The Vikings or sometimes called Variagians Varyag were Norsemen who migrated to the east and south by what is now Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. The legend tells of three brothers – and Truvada Sineus Rurik came and began to rule in Rus Slavic cities Novgorod and Izborsk Bilozer. The younger brother died, and complete power over the northern tribes of the Eastern Slavs Slavs Kriviches and was transferred to Rurik. No doubt there Rurik historical, and as the story goes, came to Rus with his parents and wife. Rurik is considered the founder of the dynasty in the Prince Rus. establishment of Rurik in northern Rus result of an agreement with the tribes of the confederacy Novgorod ..
Varangian are known to be called the South’s participation in campaigns Rus military. Military assistance is required primarily for foreign military Rus. Some of these campaigns are those of Oleg, Igor and Vladimir in Bysantium, the war of Yaroslav the Wise with Pechenegs. The announcement was also used for the classification of relations between the princes. The texts of 907, 911 and 944 treaties between the EF and show Bysantium between people were sent Rusian Scandinavian names. Scandinavian Rus were not only employees hired as warriors but also as diplomats.
Several versions exist in historical studies over a considerable share of Danes and Swedes in Rus-Scandinavian links medieval. There are also a number smaller, the facts of the relationship between railway undertakings and Norway. An example of this is archaeological finds, such as silver coins found in Nesbu, Norway, which coined the Kievan Rus at the time of Vladimir and Yaroslavl.
Trade between EF and Norway less important than Denmark and Sweden, and are poorly reflected in the written sources. The Icelandic sagas contain only two live recordings travel industry in Norway to Rus. One of them reported a Norwegian merchant marine Agda Gudleik, who traveled often and was called Rus therefore Gudleik Rusian. The saga of Olav Tryggvason said a large shipment of silk that has probably bought Rusian land and set his ship to Norway. Kievan Rus was mainly used by medieval Norwich as a transit area for goods to the east of the East.
There is reason to believe that travel from the Baltic to the Norwegians have continued Rus seventh and 13th centuries. A law passed by the Norwegian king Magnus said that in 1276, when you create the right, the Norwegians have continued to trade trips to the countries located along the Baltic Sea, including Gardariki that is the same as Rus.
Further evidence of the existence of certain transactions between railway companies and Norway, is the small Norwegian coins nineteen ten sites in eastern Europe, coins have been found out fifteen seven sites in the territory of the Kiev Rus. Ten pieces belong to both the third Harald (years 1047-1066), two were hit during the reign of Olav Kyrre (years 1066-1093), the rest are undated (9th century)
The major interest is the history of relations between the Prince of Kiev Vladimir the Great (980-1015) and Norway. There is evidence, you may have struggled Norwegian Erik Prince. The young King Olav Tryggvason, the nephew of the great lord of Vladimir Sigurd, and his mother were given shelter in Kiev. Sigurd Olav saved nine years of age in captivity in the Baltic countries, and brought to court Grand Prince Vladimir. Prince Olav has been a loyal servant of Vladimir but fell victim of slander and was forced to resign. A few years later, possibly with the help of Prince Vladimir, Erik dethroned, making it flee to Sweden, to become the king of Norway. Later, she began wrestling with Prince Vladimir on land in northwest Russia. War lasted four years and has led him to start.
The maintenance by Prince Vladimir of relations traditionally good with the Scandinavian countries seems quite logical that the Rurik dynasty, to which he belonged was of Scandinavian origin. Among the many wives of Vladimir was a Scandinavian born – Rogneda – whom he married in 977. Good relations with the Scandinavian countries with Prince Vladimir ensure stability on the borders of North West Russia and was mainly used for local tactics.
According to ancient Scandinavian sources, Olav Haraldsson, also known as St. Olav (995 years 1030) was the King of Norway from 1014-1028, lived in Rus from autumn 1029 until spring 1030. Norwegian opposition politicians took advantage of the King of England and Denmark, Knut the Great, who also asked to power in Norway. Olav was defeated in the war against Denmark and was forced to flee to Sweden after the Rus. The St. Olav was married to Astrid, the sister of Yaroslav the Wise Ingigerd women. It is known that Ingigerd convinced her husband to promote Olavs son, Magnus, who was left on the left Olav Rus.
Therefore, Cuarán Magnus, the future king of Norway (1035-1047) and Denmark (1042-1047) is also called Magnus the past Well, at least five years of his life in the Rus. Later, members of the nobility of Norway arrived in Kiev and brought him back to Norway. Some sagas contain evidence of Yaroslav and active participation Ingigerd breeding Magnus to the throne of Norway.
The sagas also tell us the King of (1046-1066) Norway Harald hard rule of two visits in Rus. In 1031 he began his journey the East “for Gardariki, King Jarisleiv”, where he lived for several years (Ca 1034-1043) in Kiev, the court of Yaroslav the Wise, by Snorri Sturluson was compared. Harald later spent several years of serving the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomakh. On his return to Kiev in 1043, he married Elizabeth, daughter of Yaroslav the Wise.
Harald wrote a song dedicated to Joy Elizabeth, daughter of King Yaroslav, who proposed marriage. “It should be noted that this type lyric poetry of love is not typical for the works of Scandinavian burns. Ukrainian translation was made by the famous Ukrainian poet Ivan Franko.
Harold Elizabeth and two daughters – Mary and Ingigerd. This marriage strengthened ties between the railway companies and Norway, and has resulted in a temporary alliance between the powerful Svein Harald and Earl Ulfsson, the future king of Denmark.
The assistance provided by Yaroslav the Wise Harald, namely the preservation of its treasure, which provide temporary shelter Harald and help plan your trip to the motherland on the one hand, and to promote a political alliance between the enemies of King Harald and Magnus marriage to Elizabeth On the other hand, resulted in an agreement between Magnus and Harald to divide the state of Norway.
The Norwegian Queen Elizabeth remained more than 20 years – since the winter of 1043/1044 to death Harald September 25, 1066 during the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Later she married the Danish king Svein.
The fact that written sources of information Rusian on the presence of Scandinavian Rus does not mention the names of the Norwegian kings Rusian serves princes, nor his son, who grew up there, shows a strong overestimation in the sagas of their role in the Rus. In addition, the lives of the kings of Norway in Rus is represented in a concise and not in the sagas – a few words in general. It may be due the lack of specific information, and authors of the sagas tendency to exaggerate the importance of the Scandinavian Rus noble. However, despite the lack of sources of information Rusian, there is evidence of their presence in the Rus. The reason for this statement is verses of boiling, laconic content while providing objective information reliable.
Relations between the Rus and Scandinavia have been particularly strong in the Grand Duchy of Mstislav Vladimirovich (1125-1132). Through its mother who was a descendant of a famous British royal family. His first wife, Cristina is the daughter of Swedish king Ingi Steinkelsson. Mstislav Norwegian girls were married Sigurd (Sigurd Jordsalsfare), Danish Knut Erik and Obodritsky respectively. Malmfrid probably no more than 15 years old when he came to Norway Sigurd. After the death Sigurd married the Danish prince Erik Ermune and later became the Queen of Denmark.
In describing the links between Ukraine and Norway during the late Middle Ages, we must bear in mind that after the Kalmar Union from 1397 in Denmark, Sweden and Norway form a triunion state, ruled by kings Denmark. In 1523, Sweden has withdrawn from the Union, after the witch of the Union is in Denmark and Norway. Moreover, In 1536, Norway has lost its autonomy internal and becomes a part of the power of the Danish kingdom. However, despite its political subordination to Denmark in the XV-XVII centuries Norway has remained as a State independently with its own economy and the merchant class who are pursuing their own interests. At the same time, it is noted that during that period there was virtually no connection between the land of Ukraine and Norway.
Social and political relations during 1762-1917
During this period, the situation in both was both regions: the area with the center of Christiania (Oslo future) was part of the Swedish-Danish kingdom, while the land along the upper Dnieper River belonged Austria (later, Austro-Hungarian) and the Russian Empire. Only in 1905, the Danish Prince Carl, guided by the provisions of the Treaty of Karlstad amounted the throne of Norway under the name Haakon VII, and 10-15 years later, the process of state formation began around “the mother of Russian cities.
Process above has a definite impact on the general state of relations between the two countries. Until the late 14th century, of Norwegian origin placed his main interest in the field of water from the White Sea and Kara at the time the issue of Russian Grand Duchy of Finland and the Arkhangelsk province.
Norway in Ukraine
Steven Christian (1781-1863), an eminent botanist, a fund of Norway from Sweden. Finland was born, studied in St. Petersburg. His first major task was the position of director of Nikita Botanical Garden near Yalta ups. It has also contributed greatly to the creation of wine Magarach School (1828), after the death of Marshal von Biberstein, in 1826, was in charge of sericulture in the region. In 1841, Steven became a land-chief of agriculture in the region.
In 1853, a Ukrainian city of Ismail was visited by the Director of the Department of Geography, Norway, Professor Hansten, who was then working as the arc of the meridian.
It is also necessary to mention the Norwegian cultural influence in the region. In particular, in 1874, Odessa and Yalta public had the opportunity to enjoy Johan Svensen (1840-1911) opera “Carnaval de Paris” Symphony and the legend “Zorah.
Twenty years later, the provinces the south have been visited by the future Nobel Prize winner and author of the “fairyland” Knut Hamsun during his trip to the Caucasus region.
In 1910, Christian Sinding came to Odessa, for which the book of Russian music wrote in its edition No. 12: “On 29 January the Imperial Russian Musical Society Symphony celebrated the seventh collection led by the outstanding Norwegian composer and conductor Christian Sinding, with the participation of the pianist Karl Nissen. The program consisted entirely of music written by famous client, About bemoll Symphony # 1, the piano concerto in D major orchestra, variations of “Destino” and “Rondo infinity” for a large orchestra. Sinding was warmly welcomed by the public, and received a standing ovation. ”
Colonel Petersen Norway, a member of the Russo-Turkish late 18th century, and a witness and chronicler of the signing of a peace treaty Kainarji Küçük who started Crimea Integration territorial possession of St. Petersburg at the time.
Igelström Joseph, a Swedish-Norwegian in the middle, is in charge of the province of Tavria. During his travels along the Black Sea coast, has attracted most of the local magnates side of Ekaterina II. Igelström collected cataloged and described an extensive collection Tatar-Arab maps and was the author of the letters to Count Grigory Potemkin general about the living conditions of population and climate of the Crimean War.
Members Baggovut noble family, a family of Norwegian origin, in addition to beer and owners in areas relevant to Eastland and the progeny of the Chancellor Uppsala University Svebelius (Julia Baggovut Feodorovna), also took part in the battle Ackendorf May 1807 against Napoleon’s army. A street was named Kiev Baggovutivska.
The famous Norwegian writer Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson had numerous contacts with Ukrainian writers and journalists, for example, Romano Sembratovich, Fedorchuk Volodymyr and Yaroslav Kushnir. By Taras Shevchenko in Lviv Academy of Sciences had a large collection of writing Bjørnson Russian, German and Czech. But famous writers Ivano Franko and Mykhailo as Pavlyk also translated his writings in the Ukrainian language. Bjornson wrote several articles in the European press spoke on behalf of Ukraine. Condemned strongly to a decree issued by Tsar Alexander II, which introduced a ban on the use of language Ukrainian literature in translation and in the theater.
In the early days of the War (1914-1918) in the Galician city of Lviv, which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a group of migrants upper regions of the Dnieper River Basin formed a non-political party “Union for the Liberation of Ukraine.” National Platform and politics has been Ukraine’s independence as a constitutional monarchy form of government. The union considers it necessary to inform the U.S. public, Scandinavia and the Balkan wars neutral on matters of Ukraine and the liberation of other peoples of the Russian Empire.
To this end ULU attributed to Norway Osip Nazaruk its envoy who held talks with President of the Storting J. Løvland and Ihlen Foreign Minister and discussed with them the war and the attitude of Ukrainians towards it. Because Osip Nazaruk a series of articles on topics published in Ukrainian Norwegian Morgenbladet.
, B> Relations between Ukraine and Norway during the Soviet period.
Very few facts and evidence can be found Soviet Ukraine relations was Norwegian. The famine of 1921-1922 in Ukraine has raised the solidarity movement with the people starving in the Scandinavian countries. In Norway, this movement took the form of public agitation, charity, said weeks and months, the procedure of those who were then directed to the starving in Ukraine and the Volga region. Includes unique fundraising, individual donations and subscriptions income individuals systematically.
However, the creation in 1923 of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Republics almost ended communication between Ukraine and the community world – especially the diplomatic missions of Ukraine have been closed, and the whole activity has been taken by the People’s Commissariat for Foreign Affairs of the Union Soviet.
The Norwegian polar explorer, scientist and humanist Fridtjof Nansen served as High Commissioner of the International Red Cross to provide relief to the Ukrainian famine of 1921-23 affected. Nansen has done much to inform Europe of the famine in Ukraine and he collected money for relief work. Also Money won the Nobel Peace Prize for relief work. On January 23, 1923 Nansen reached the city of Kharkiv to discuss with the government of Soviet plans to fight Ukraine against hunger. Nansen Mission has established a series of orphanages and providing scholarships to students and faculty of the University of Kharkov. Nansen also established a series model farms – The most famous of them in the city of Kharkiv and Dnipropetrovsk Mykhailovka between. On these farms, has introduced modern technology and farming principles Eco.
Later, during the Second World War in 1944 Ukraine has regained its lost status by the passage of the Law on the Establishment of People’s Commissariat Foreign Relations Soviet Republic of Ukraine (since 1946 – Ministry of Foreign Affairs). In accordance with this Act, the Constitution was amended by Ukraine Article 15-b, which establishes the right of the Soviet Republic of Ukraine participate directly in international relations. However, due to the totalitarian nature the existing political regime in the Soviet Union, the above documents has been a mere formality.
During the Second World War, a considerable number prisoners of war ended in the labor camps of Ukraine in Norway. Many of these people have made contact with them or have contributed in various ways by Norwegian civilians. Soviet troops took part in liberating Norway in 1944-45.
In 1991, after Ukraine gained independence and entered the international arena only the relations between Ukraine and Norway began to improve. In 1992, Ukraine and Norway established diplomatic relations.
This article was prepared by members of the Institute of History of Ukraine’s National Academy of Sciences Ukraine, then translated and published by the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Kiev.
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