Distributive Politics Definition

distributive politics definition

Policy development: rights in Sierra Leone to understand the crisis of development index

"For the second consecutive year, Sierra Leone came from families in the United Nations classification Development Programme's human development indicators 179 countries, according Engilbert Gudmundsson, Sierra Leona director of the World Bank should be a call to action for all who are interested in the welfare of ordinary people Sierra Leone. " Saw Leona indicators of maternal mortality – the highest in the world – continue to lead the country down, according to the UNDP-Sierra Leone Country Assistant Director Samuel port. Of 100,000 live births, 1,800 women die according to UNDP figures, while one in four children dies before the age of five years.

Although Sierra Leone is emerging from a conflict nearly a decade ago, progress in economic rehabilitation and the establishment of basic health and education has been slow, said the West African Regional Director, World Bank, Ishac Diwan. Only half of primary schools in Sierra Leone are working, many in conditions inadequate and secondary school attendance is still only 44 percent, according to the UN. But the government is short of money. "Sierra Leone is very poor, so simply, the ability of government to implement development measures is very limited, "said Richard Moncrieff, West Africa Regional Director of International Crisis Group (Thomson Reuters Foundation, 2008).

For ordinary Sierra Leoneans, the real anxiety slow development affects them negatively. If the intervention the government is disorganized and erratic, the consequences will be both ethically and politically dark.

Politicians and policy makers are, in fact, is in his power to change the trend in human development for Sierra Leone, if they are really interested in the fight against corruption relation to the development of VIS, peace and human security. But so far, President Ernest Koroma of the All People Congress (APC) administration does not seem to have all answers to many problems facing the poor and the exploited masses or their political agenda appears to differ from that of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) was replaced. Sierra Village Leone remain isolated from their own resources, even deprived of basic social services (energy, water and shelter) necessary for growth and development. This resulted in the malfunction impeccable worsening living conditions in the country, even with a low life expectancy, mortality, infant newborn, down the economy and a population much hunger that have been the watchwords of policy Tejan Kabbah and eleven years in office. Instead, the new political elite that as expected, turned instead into an opportunity.

[Absurd, legislators] in Sierra Leone not only ask for four thousand dollars ($ 4,000 U.S. or 12 million euros) per month, but also require a soft loan of U.S. $ between 45,000 and a car loan. 30 percent are required (%) Payment of expenses in a period of three years. These members want 70 percent (%) Loans Car absorbed by the budget, paid by taxpayers. He even said the original recommendation was a threshold of six thousand dollars ($ 6,000 U.S.) per month, defended by the president, referring to him as payment reasonable. Certainly, the current members in the household to pay U.S. $ 768 (The 2,288,745) per month is one of the lowest in the sub-region, but was the amount is cautious envy of many officials who, unfortunately, are not even U.S. $ 20 per month.

Where were the members when they were demolished in the passage of some U.S. $ 300,000 other expenses for the presidential inauguration or simply travel to Gambia and other places, or the establishment of a commission of inquiry when there is already established unit to combat corruption in the Commission? If members of the harder questions be truthful, not There are a half-billion-called pay Wanza can even accommodate, or electrification of revenue today Electrical processing costs Nation Project unprecedented law services. Members can justify its claim for the completion of an investigation into the process to make savings in these foreign operations condemned by the ACC, but to propose punitive measures (Concord Times, 2008).

Interestingly, Abdul Serry Kamal, the Attorney General and Minister of Justice of the country, taken as an opportunity to engage in acts that do not serve the interests of the people of Sierra Leone, where he was involved in this case the Lebanese businessman Mohamed Wanza $ 25,000,000.00 false claims against the people of Sierra Leone. The local tabloid has described the agreement as evidence Wanza the failure of responsible government (with "people with similar interests (The rumored to include the Attorney-General to receive various unspecified share of the transaction) that have received their glasses to "do work to deal Wanza) (The New People Daily, 2008).

The real challenge is not the technical difficulty of nation building, but the political difficulty of conflict lobbying interests and illusions that the policies of quiescent current. Ending Corruption Sierra Leone, in three stages politically difficult. First, Unlike the Romantics, the country needs strong penalties for crimes of corruption, not less. The Singapore model of crime and punishment, for example, you can learn good lessons Sierra Leoneans.  

"Singapore's legal system may seem unusually severe. Although Singapore does not have the death penalty at random, Amnesty International says Singapore has one of the highest rates in the world of action on its people to drug trafficking and crimes of corruption. Even minor civil violations such as spitting, throwing garbage, cigarette butts or fall on the street are treated with heavy fines. [Singapore severe legal system seems to be working, because Paris is seen as] one of the cleanest, most cities green the world, and a popular tourist destination, receiving more than eight million visitors a year. At only 700 square kilometers, Singapore has a GDP that rivals with the great nations of Europe. This gives the world's fourth most competitive economy, placing it before the United States. The city-state also has a high level of life, low unemployment and a literacy rate of 98 percent. Singapore has 12 times the population of Vancouver, but only half the crime rate "(the Pacific Basin Journal, 2008).

Multi-sectoral strategy to fight corruption

In general, in contemplation of a solution to a problem, people look for causes or, even more absurd, the "root" cause. But we have a correlation logic between the cause of a problem mounting solutions, or simply unrealistic for him. Such is the case of the crisis of development in Sierra Leone. The root cause problems development in Sierra Leone is facing is the illusion and greed that supports their systematic corruption. The corruption in the public accounts for the failure of leaders succeeding in the fight against stagnation in the countries in economic development and improving human development index.

Despite its potential, Sierra Leone remains one of the world's poorest countries, with a student's dependence on foreign donors, as it has the financial resources to develop its economy. The country still needs a broad base of external support sustained increase significantly the living standards of its inhabitants. Most foreign investment is in mining area, although the sector creates relatively few jobs, but generate large profits. country's basic infrastructure, while remaining insufficient, especially when faced with problems of inadequate power supply, a serious lack of health infrastructure and inadequate delivery of services base. There is also a shortage of skilled manpower to meet the demands of a national development strategy, building structure and the country's transport is reasonable be improved. Clearly, Sierra Leone still has a lot to catch up many years of political instability and the horrors and devastation of civil war of the decade 1990.

The IMF Report No. 08/249 Country, a second review of three-year agreement under the Poverty Reduction and Growth results showed mixed in the IMF supported program with output growth of 6.8 percent and broad-based, but missed key revenue and expenditure targets tarnished by the slow progress in structural reform front. In addition, growth of production has kept pace with significant revenue losses in the second half of 2006 (0.7 percent of GDP) and 2007 (2.4 percent of GDP) have derailed the PRGF arrangement. These deficiencies are greater volatility that accompanies leadership often governing Sierra Leone. Therefore, players in a context of relentless corruption within the government, a stable development, it has fluctuated more as well.

The clear losers in terms of corruption within the government relentlessly are poor people in Sierra Leone. The majority of the population Sierra Leone is just to make ends meet every day. Being poor, they are inevitably pressured by the mismanagement of the country's natural resources, and the cruel consequences of greed and illusions that define the society of Sierra Leone, the poor people of Sierra Leone does not seem to have any chance. Young people are hungry, who are a large percentage of the marginalized poor are the victims that they may not accept their fate quietly. For decades, hunger among young people has prompted the same answer: the riots – the classic populist political base.

Then at the end of the chain of corruption, the crisis is real worsens poverty among rural-urban poor, more likely to suffer from hunger are children. Stunting is common among malnourished young children living in these rural-urban poor communities. Stunting is not only a physical condition that affects all physical, mental and social well-being of children small. It is an irreversible disease that lasts a lifetime, and indeed, some studies show that is transmitted from generation to generation. And if this is the persistence of Poverty in Sierra Leone today is new, if not dealt decisively with all the seriousness at the time the consequences will seal the fate of Sierra Leone, which is on the verge of self-destruction because of the inability of political parties to change their behavior.

In summary, internal corruption must be addressed, and must be treated seriously, because side effects consequences of corruption are so persistent and conditions responsible for poor development index rating human to Sierra Leone. The question is how. The fault is not in town. The solution must come from political leaders. This type of leadership that could address endemic corruption in society has talked about for decades, but must now be taken more seriously.

Fortunately, politicians have power to do all this: change the anti-corruption regulations, which may make laws more stringent and effective in promoting organizational change in the fight against corruption Commission (ACC), ACC may be more relevant and a force for good, and promoting innovations in technology and its integration in all ministries, better that can regulate the functioning of government. When corruption is effectively contained the key parameters in the development, namely: (i) promote a more income national, (ii) reorient public spending for infrastructure projects and programs for poverty reduction, (iii) avoid rapid accumulation of public debt and (iv) accelerating the implementation of structural reforms can be better coordinated. These structural reforms should be revitalized to support growth on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Programme Objectives and policies of poverty reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF)

The main objectives in the medium term program supported by the PRGF, which were reviewed by the present Government of Sierra Leone provided a real GDP growth will be slightly lower but still high by 6 percent and double-digit inflation is expected to persist beyond 2010, assuming that impact changed of rising food and energy prices. With the policy objectives for the year 2008 to consolidate macroeconomic stabilization and prepare strong sustained growth in the medium term macroeconomic framework for 2008 real GDP growth of 6 percent has gained strange rhythm. Based on greater macroeconomic expansion of agriculture, manufacturing, construction and service activities is greatly appreciated as constructive in its two literal and metaphorical sense. (Institutions Bretton Woods is the Apostles at the head). In its literal sense, macro-economic development is now a quality strategy, brand development through which improvements in education and infrastructure and low levels of inflation more pro-growth and progressive distributional change. In the figurative sense, represents the antithesis big government, under pressure hierarchical institutions in which the government is at work leading to faster growth. The Bretton Woods have proposed a model framework to preserve the institutions in Sierra Leone, the effective functioning of the intuitions.

But inevitably, Sierra Leone institutions reluctant to preserve the functioning of institutions. Given the chance, politicians come to these institutions and all they do is take resources away from institutions government and rendered unproductive. This is because Sierra Leoneans believe that the surest way to become financially adequate access to government resources. Forces political life of many citizens of Sierra Leone educated in the role of political activism, taking a more active role with the ulterior motive of gain at the expense of national development. In successful market economies, political activism is an exercise of minorities, most people opt for entrepreneurship for others may have the desire and grind of running a government.

In modern political practice, the selfless patriotism is useful. In modern governance, the Corruption is an abomination, the technology is relevant for effective management and rigid regulatory standards are the Holy Grail in the fight against the measures against corruption. Far from being the answer to the lack of national development, political discourse about the fight against corruption has not become law in a country that has not made a serious effort to develop after independence.

successful companies are better suited to deal with less draconian anti-corruption laws and regulation. However, since winning independence from Great Britain, Sierra Leone has been in serious development work, basing strategies and policies in the rhetoric and lies. This neglect is all the more surprising, given the persistence of corruption and poverty caused by the illusion greed and political elite.

The critical challenges for Sierra Leone to improve recovery, democratic governance support, peace, justice and security, protect human rights of vulnerable groups, create jobs, especially for young people, improve capacity building management and the fight against income poverty, widen political participation, especially among marginalized groups such as women and youth, accelerate the pace of progress social and to reduce the heavy dependence on official development assistance (ODA). These priorities are outlined in the conclusions of the Consultative Group meeting in December 2006, strategy to consolidate the peace agreement with the Peacebuilding Commission and other planning documents of economic development.

Making work government

The five reform – reform of the judiciary, civil society and media, health care reform, tax reform, Customs and police administration, reform in the middle of the good fight against economic crime and corruption – and, economically and politically. Must take positive measures to support reforms to reduce corruption and improve transparency and accountability. Good governance fundamentally underpins the reduction effective poverty and economic growth sustained by the government that is competent, transparent, not corrupt, and needs of its people. reliable actors from the enactment laws and ensure equal conditions is essential to promote sustainable development as a reliable judicial system operates fairly. Only a true practice of democracy in Sierra Leone may exploit the talents of all its citizens and allow them opportunities to realize this potential in the free market of goods and ideas, a brand development strategy is reflected in the 2002 Monterrey Consensus, which states that: "Good governance is essential for sustainable development. Economic Policy Healthy Weight democratic institutions to the needs of the population and improved infrastructure are the basis for sustained economic growth, eliminate poverty and create jobs work "(U.S. Department of State, 2007).

It is time for Sierra Leone's political elite to make conscious, determined to continue efforts for democracy and a fair, sometimes in difficult circumstances. Politicians should now be seen to take measures to increase transparency and good governance, both to expand freedom and democracy and that such policies are more likely to reduce poverty and improve the lives of ordinary citizens. These policies have the potential to attract growth-oriented development assistance and foreign investment (such as meeting the qualifying criteria for the Threshold Program of millions of dollars in aid from the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), managed by the Millennium Challenge Corporation challenged (MCC), a company in the U.S.) that can have powerful multiplier effects, both economically and in terms of democratic governance.

The beginning of the definition of an administration Koroma national development strategy is the reform that must be supported by equally powerful messages. The Koroma administration can not wait to eliminate the risk of national development by being soft on corruption in government. Government of Sierra Leone must understand how to develop trade priorities and take-offs and opportunity costs inevitable. A responsible strategy is to fight for reform against corruption and provide material and technical assistance in five areas separate components:

The first part: judicial reform, with a commitment to:
or reduce the potential for corruption Judicial transparency and accountability.
or automate the management of the organization and functioning of the courts.
No procedure judicial.
or clarify the duties of members of the judiciary.
o Provide training, improving the judicial infrastructure, and better management and information systems.
Redefining priorities and recognizes the priority of providing "basic fairness" – in other words, justice at the community level with a formal legal system.
Q Ensure that alternative systems of administering justice (including through chiefdoms) works properly and fairly.
o Make address backlogs and delays that continue to attack the formal justice system – civil, criminal and juvenile matters.
Establishment of new regulations or strengthening of institutional cooperation, coordination and communication between the actors involved in the justice sector.

Second Component: Civil society and reform of the media, with a commitment to:
the monitoring of all non-governmental organizations and initiatives supporting components.
o Strengthen the capacity Sierra Leonean NGOs and media.
o To implement the reforms and policies of the new government can allow the media and organizations civil society to effectively perform its oversight function of government policy and performance.
or educate the public.
Building or effective models of association of NGOs / government.

The third component: The reform of the health care system, with a commitment to:
or complement its ongoing efforts to make quality healthcare more accessible and transparent to all patients.
or reduce the potential for corruption in the system of health care by limiting the discretionary powers of health providers, directors of budget and procurement officers.
O Posted up of standards and increased accountability through increased surveillance.

The fourth component: the reform of taxation, Customs and Police Administration, with a commitment to:
o Improving the capacity and transparency in tax collection and customs administration
o Improve institutional and human capacity in the administration of the police
or improving the systems for applying the Code of Ethics.

Five components: Reform of the Commission to Combat Corruption (CAC), with a commitment to:
o Provide technical assistance to help implement reforms ACC institutional decentralization of the agency
o Improving the institutional and human capacity in the administration of the police.
Or help to create the Council of independent civilian monitor the activity of ACC and ACC to advise the Commissioner.
o Improved institutional and human capacities.
o Improve protection mechanisms complainants.
o Improving the provision of social services in terms of quality, quantity and process.

Configuration Examples

Sierra Leone Policy trucks will undoubtedly have to rethink some genuine. The most attracted to curb corruption through authoritarian leadership potential constituency that could save the policies of government of Sierra Leone in ruins. The players in power in Sierra Leone have to be serious about eliminating their dependence on corruption and the recognition of a comprehensive reform process with a national development strategy becomes an integral part the whole process instead of an independent anti-corruption instrument. Sierra Leone politicians are simply too extravagant when it comes to their use of public resources as they do to maintain a lifestyle with high incomes. Sierra Leone fight against corruption in the system must be transferred to the extra work to deter crime corruption with all the entities that constitute the pillars of the integrity of zero tolerance to corruption in all its forms and the rule of law.

Make a good politician is the ability to lead people away from corrupt practices. Except country, corruption will continue to block the policies needed to make address the crisis of human development index in Sierra Leone. Knowledgeable, many people rethink their priorities, but the politicians will have to disseminate these messages and forge new alliances. If the conditions of poverty and corruption are not dealt with decisively, youth and children from rural and urban areas remain hungry and disoriented, and there is no hope for Sierra Leone. Configuration examples of experimentation with the legal system of justice in Madrid against the crimes of corruption is a small price to pay.

About the Author

Kenday S. Kamara is a freelance development consultant in administration, policy development and capacity building. He can be reached at kenday.kamara@waldenu.edu.

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