International Politics 8th Edition

international politics 8th edition

A response (part 1) "Mahavamsa mindset" Then the accusation of "racism" that raises the chronic sustained?

A Response (Part 1) "Mahavamsa mindset" Then the accusation of "racism" that raises the chronic sustained?

For Devananda JL

First let me first thank Mr. DBS Jayaraj for the publication of my article on his blog ( href = ""> and Dr. Rajasingham Narendran for your reply in my article elsewhere ( .) Dr. Narendran has made great efforts to help me to highlight the positive aspects of the Mahavamsa. Of course, like Sri Lanka should appreciate the fact that the Mahavamsa is the greatest epic poem written in Pali in our country, but there is a saying, "no matter how you slice thin, always two sides. "I remember the highly respected scholar Pali (a Sinhalese), the late Dr. EW Adikaram said in an interview after the Black July 1983, the only way to have peace in Sri Lanka is burning all copies of the Mahavamsa. I'm sure Pali scholar must have seen the negative side of it.

Let me also thank all members who commented (precious comments and constructive criticism) in my article, and especially Mr. Bandu de Silva for his response ( ) for what he calls "controversial." Shakespeare said: "A rose by any other name would smell as sweet." We in Sri Lanka had the advantage of several waves of cultural influences. It needs to be evaluated with a degree of objective detachment and recognize the contribution made to our country by others. Our culture in the past has been a synthesis of different cultures and evolve a new culture of these influences must be taken into consideration. If the "controversy" may help at least some members of our community (Sri Lanka) to burn the candles have stopped to appreciate the beauty of pluralism and multicultural diversity that exists in our country thousands of years, Sri Lanka and secularism as practiced in the past we have seen in Kandy, where Sinhalese accept Nayakkar dynasty of Madurai, South India (now Tamil Nadu) as their king, who is known by another name.

I regret to say that in response, entitled "He is accused of" racism "directed against the development Chronicle sustainable? "The learned Mr. Bandu de Silva, has completely lost my point. If someone has read my article carefully, he or she would have understood not accused Ven. Mahanama Thero as a racist or his poetic literature (Mahavamsa mythology) who wrote for "serene joy and emotion of the pious" as a racist doctrine. Even mentioned that during the turbulent period when Buddhism was under threat, the author of Mahavamsa Ven. Mahanama Mahavihara monks and had a good reason (can not blame) of mythology. Also, my article is not a document or document on the detailed analysis of the historiography of Sri Lanka (one of several universities and researchers have already done so), but only a political vision to highlight the system of beliefs (myths and misconceptions) of the Society of Sri Lanka days, or rather the Sinhalese Buddhist majority due to the influence of Mahavansa, which has a bias of thought known as [Rat (Sinhala Country) – Játhiya (Sinhala Nation / Race) – Aagama (Sinhala Buddhist Religion] Mahavansa-state of mind The result of this mood. Nationalism is the Sinhalese Buddhist Anagarika Dharampal Evangelista Sinhalese Buddhist nationalist movement of the ultra-Chinthanaya Jathika Hela and now / Sinhala chauvinism Urumaya leading to Buddhist Sinhalese, one of the leading causes of resolve ethnic crisis in Sri Lanka that has caused and continues to cause misery to our nation of Sri Lanka. Although history policy (academic) and religion (spirituality) are three different disciplines Sri Lanka, which are interrelated, and to understand the mentality people in Sri Lanka today, we must pay attention to all three, the only reason I dragged Mahavamsa and Buddhism. But even if you do not want to participate in a "dispute" but at the same time, I do not want to disappoint my readers who expect a response. This is just a clarification should not be construed as a refutation.

No change or dilute the original content of my letter, I would like more details on the main issues raised here (which I think is worth responding) with more motivation and clarifications and additional examples each time as possible to support my point of view. Once again this is not a deep analysis, because if I had to make an analysis deep, each sentence / paragraph I wrote (my article) can be expanded into separate articles and is beyond the scope of my intention to highlight the current Buddhist Sinhalese (Mahavansa) mentality.

….. Those who know the truth as truth and lies and lies to get the truth ….. Dhammapada

1. Is Mahavamsa the history of Sri Lanka?

The story is essentially the company's ability to remember the past. The mode of exercise this capacity differs from one society to another. Archaeology (artifacts, remnants, fragments, burials, coins, stone inscriptions, cave writings, the changes of rock, wave written in the leaves, etc.), ancient literature, chronicles, cultural anthropology, stories popular, historical linguists, etc are some of the tools necessary to understand the history of a society.

1.0. Chronicles

Mahavihara monks remain Pali chronicles of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, which were intended primarily to record Theravada Buddhist activities. There two sets of columns that historians of Sri Lanka have put their trust in the study of history island The Dipavamsa (5 th century AD), the Mahavamsa (6th century AD), and Culavamsa (Century 12) were written in Pali, while columns later, Pujavali (Century 13), Rajaratnakara (Century 16) and Rajavali (18 th century AD), generally considered less reliable than the first historical documents were written in Pali chronicles Elected / Helu (Sinhala Prakrit). It is also a comment written in Pali Mahavamsa known by a Buddhist monk in the 13th century known as 'Tika' or explain and interpret the verses Vansatthappakasini Mahavamsa. Tika This is the telling of a mysterious "Sihala atthakatha (vamsa text known as the original source) that disappeared after the Mahavamsa was written, the main reason for calling the Pali chronicles Mahavihara which tells the Sinhalese. (This is considered "Sihala Attakatha" is nothing more than the Indian epics and Puranas written in Sanskrit).

The Mahavamsa (Chronicle of a grand historical poem) was written not as a history of Sri Lanka (Sinhalese o), but as a story of Mahavihara (Theravada Buddhist). The Mahavamsa and Dipavamsa only Theravada Buddhism speaks of the Buddhist Sinhalese and NO. The original Mahavamsa (Mahawansha) is a historical poem written in Pali, which covers a period from the arrival of Vijaya (543 BC) at the time of the domination of Mahasen (334 to 361 BC) written by the Venerable Mahanama Thero, an uncle of King Dhatusena.

To study the history Sri Lanka (put it in context) and its people (Sinhala / Tamil), his former Religions (Buddhism / Hinduism), languages / scripts and culture, we must also examine / Understand the history of India (North and South) because the source (the root) starts from there and the two have always been interconnected stories (umbilical cord) to independence.


1.1. Theravada Gloria

According to archaeological evidence / Registration and chronic, it is clear that during the same period there were also other religions such as Mahayana Buddhism, Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Jainism, etc, but were ignored everyone. It is also clear that not only Yakka, nagas, and Kalingas Demades, but also some other tribes as Kabojas / Jhavakas Kambojas, Milek, Muridae, Merai and also lived on the island during this period, but soon Devanampiya Tisa at the end of the Mahavamsa Anuradhapura glorify the kings of Theravada Buddhism, although ethnicity is not mentioned (an ethnic group or a dynasty called Hela / Sinhala is not mentioned at all accept two times in the chapter that begins on Vijaya / Myth of León). Only non-Buddhist kings have been identified in the Mahavamsa (although no mention of epigraphy) that Damelars (foreign invaders). Therefore, Pali chronicles the history that is still the authority of the island, based on can not be considered a complete history of Sri Lanka Sinhalese history, and not much more useful for understand the history of Tamil from Sri Lanka. In this sense, epigraphic and archaeological explorations are much more important than partial and distorted records columns earlier referred to events that occurred many centuries before, as the story of the island. In other words, we should seek other sources to understand the true history of the country and its people. Unfortunately, others do not even India (North and South) has remained as a record or any other organized system to preserve its historical records, but that does not means that no history or have no historical evidence.

The Pali chronicles were written long after the events described was carried out (some of them more than 1000). Therefore not be considered an accurate record of events. They were written by Theravada Buddhist priests especially tried to convey a religious message with events that illustrate the importance of Theravada Buddhism, therefore, a very skewed version. The description of events was a very heavy religious flavor and history has changed in praise of the kings who sponsored and supported Buddhism and those who were not described as "bad kings" or "invaders." Also a tendency to remain silent on matters that do not represent Buddhism in a positive light.


1.2. Bias towards northern India

It is also clear that the Mahavamsa is oriented north India against the South. That may be because Buddhism and Pali that came there. He was trying to minimize component southern India Lanka culture, the adoption of an anti-Tamil and trying to maximize an imaginary component of culture india in northern Sri. Brahmanical revival, the Bhakti movement and the extinction of Buddhism in India and Southern Dynasties intervention in Sri Lanka can india be the reason behind the formation of the Sinhala Buddhist identity. To create the Sinhalese Buddhist society in the 5th century AD, the monks imagined Mahavihara / seen " Aryan migration, "a mass in northern India during the proto-historic period. This created the foundation myth for the history of the authority of the island, conditioning the minds of people from generation to generation and continues to the next generation. In fact, no objective evidence of an Aryan migration northern India, Sri Lanka is ethnically structure very south of India with a close affinity of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Many leading historians, archaeologists, geologists, epigraphers, genealogists, anthropologists, linguists and etymologists have participated in research on the ancient history of Sri Lanka for more 30 years, conducting excavations. Recent archaeological discoveries tree in Sri Lanka are the use of modern technology that not only the fauna and flora, but people in southern India and Sri Lanka are of the same strain. This has also been established by the findings in their culture, language and religion, showing that populations of these two areas are closely linked. Recent excavations at Rajarata (Anuradhapura) by Dr. Siran Deraniyagala and a team of archaeologists discovered a large number of potsherds inscribed with writings dating from the fourth century BC Brahmi, which clearly indicates that Anuradhapura was settled by people who have taken the south of the megalithic culture of India. However, archaeologists and modern historians agree that the ancient people of Sri Lanka belonged to the family of languages followed by the Dravidians and Dravidian (megalithic) the culture. The results also show that there is great similarity between the ancient people of Sri Lanka and south of the India. The geographical proximity of Sri Lanka and South India, with 22 miles of shallow sea may be the reason.

Moreover, even great scholar of Pali Buddhaghosa southern India who came to Sri Lanka from Tamil (Chola) countries in the 5th century AD and made a remarkable contribution to Buddhism was represented (in The Mahavamsa) and Brahmins of North India and born near Bodh Gaya which shows a clear bias towards North Indians (Magadhi) against the South. Also forgot to mention the other in southern India and Tamil and Buddhist scholars Dhammapala Buddadatta Buddhaghosa who worked and helped in the Pali Canon.

1.3. Against Mahayana

The Mahavamsa is also very biased against Mahayana Theravada. He does not mention the arrival of the Mahayana Buddhists of South India. All kings who supported Mahayana is presented as the worst men possible. The biggest casualty was Kassapa who was named as the father of the murderer of a crime he probably never committed. There are still some Mahayana Buddhist Tamil establishments (Palli) in the East and perhaps in the Jaffna peninsula. The best known is Velgam Vehera, which became perumpalli Rajaraja-Cola named after the emperor. Another was Vikkirama-calamekan-perumpalli. The number of ancient Buddha statues found in other parts of Sri Lanka has been in Tamil Nadu, which shows a strong presence of Buddhism.

1.4. Tamil Buddhist epic

The famous Tamil epics were Buddhists Manimekalai, Silappadhikaram, Valaiyapathi, Kundalakesi and Jivaka Cintamani. The loss of Tamil Buddhist works include grammar Virasoliyam, Abhidhamma Siddhantattokai work, praising Tiruppadigam, Kada Bimbisara Biography. Manimekalai purely Buddhist third Sangam period in Tamil literature is one of the most famous Supreme Court and the work done in Tamil Buddhists. It also speaks Tamil Buddhists in the Island but also Silappathikaram Manimekalai Nagadipa is neither a history book.


Commenting on the overwhelming popularity the history of the Sinhalese people in Dr. Godakumbura pattini wrote: "The literature pattini and the origin of religion is very great, and most came from Tamil sources." It gives a fairly complete list the writing of stories based on Sinhala and Silappathikaram Manimekalai.


The ancient Tamil literature and searches (excavations) to prove the existence of Jaffna Tamils, including Tamil Buddhist (Theravada and Mahayana), but no evidence to show that if there is ever a separate Tamil kingdom in Jaffna soon Century 13 and is the same for the Sinhalese. The temptation to treat any Buddhist Singhalese Sri Lanka necessarily resist it must be remembered that the Tamils, Andhra, and Kalinga were at least once also a Buddhist, and had a lot in the spread of Buddhist culture in Southeast Asia.

History Sri Lanka since the 3rd century AD 9th century AD, is imbued with the influence of Buddhism and Buddhist culture. This includes early history, the Pali language intrusion and Sanskrit and its spread among the Tamils of Sri Lanka and its ancient Dravidian culture, and the origin of the new language Sanskrit, Pali and Tamil called Elected / Helu (Sihala Prakrit).

1.5. Nagas (Chera / Sera), Pandyan / Pandu Cholas and Sola / (Darnels)

The proof of the presence of the Nagas in Sri Lanka during the first period of history and how they have assimilated with the freely Pandu (Pandyan) in marriage is entirely supported by artifacts, Pali inscriptions and literary reviews. Pali Buddhist chronicle Mahavamsa as projects not Darnels (foreigner invaders), but could not link the Pandyan country Tamil, even in the genesis of Sinhalese Sri Lanka, which indicates the strong presence of Pandyan (Pandu) during this period. Do not forget that the Nagas are not unique to Sri Lanka in the early historical period, the Nagas, not only took Nakanatu / Nagadipa in Sri Lanka, but Nagar Kovil, Naga Pattinam-and some other places in South India and according to Professor Indrapala, two nagas and Darnels have also been back and forth between Sri Lanka and South India.

Today Nayar (Nagar) of Chera (Kerala) are considered descendants of the Nagas. Dr. GC Mendis Ceylon's ancient history ", p. 23, North of Ceylon said that Serentivu Nagadipa which is in Tamil.

"Serum or Chera (currently Kerala) is the equivalent of Dravidian Nagas. Chera Mandala has the same meaning as Naga Mandala "-" Anthropology of India (Bharatiya Bhavan Vidiya publication).

Arab merchants and traders who first landed in the north of the island called Serentivu / Serendip Serendip that.

Let me give some examples of the Naga kings bearing the name of Naga clan

The first Queen Anula (47 to 41 BC) was the widow of Chora Naga and Kuda Tissa. She was Siva porter of the palace with her husband. Subsequently she poisoned Siva and lived with an Indian carpenter, Vatuka, Dharubatissa wood carrier, and a priest named Neeliya palaces, all of which are poisoned until finally ruled the country alone and continued living a life of infamy. She was burned alive by Kuttakanna Tissa, second son Tissa Maha Cula, who found that he had the support of all the people of Lanka to stop such a shame sovereign. Siva Candamuka King (1944-1952 AD), son of Ila Naga Devi Damila married. Beyond Khallata Naga (109BC), son of Tissa Saddha, Cora Naga (63BC), son and grandson of Valagamba Saddha Tissa (in fact he was the husband of Anula (48BC), the first was the lover of Shiva) Ila Naga (36AD), Naga Mahallaka (136AD), son of the small Vasabha (67 CE) and his brother-brother-Gajaba (114AD), Naga Kudda (188AD), son of the small Mahaliaka Siri Naga Naga me (184AD), another grandson of Mahallaka Abhaya Naga (231AD), son of Siri Naga I, Siri Naga II (240 AD), grandson of Siri Naga I, Maha Naga (565AD) etc, and Siva the king (515 AD), Uncle of Kirti Sena.

The kings belonging to the Tisza and dynasties that ruled the former Buddhist kingdom of Anuradhapura Lambakarana are Nagas speak Prakrit. Dutugemunu, the national hero of Sri Lanka, was a king belonging to the Naga dynasty Tissa. Vihara Maha Devi Her mother is the daughter of the King of Naga Keleniya, Kavan Tissa and his father, was the grandson of Maha Naga, who established a kingdom in Mahagama in Rohana. Elder brother Tissa Maha Naga Devanampiya, a contemporary of Emperor Asoka, was the first king of the dynasty Tissa. Some kings Tissa who proudly wore the Naga clan Names have been Khallata Naga (Dutugemunu nephew), Cora Naga, which was one of the many victims poisoned to death by Queen Anula love, Mahadathika Maha Naga and Ila. Yasa Lalaka Tissa was the last king of the first dynasty that ruled over the kingdom Anurdhapura.

Some familiar names of poets Naga Sri Lanka who have contributed to the old Tamil literature are Elaththu Thevanar Pooth (whose compositions are included in anthologies known Nattrinai, Kurunthokai and Puranaanooru) Mudingarayar, Asiriyar Musiri, Nakar Neelakandanar and Ela.


Moreover, the ex Names in Tamil South India – Sri Lanka Region are very similar to those of Prakrit names (not ending with an 'N' or 'M'). For example, some of the names of the ancient kings of Sri Lanka Tamil (Mentioned in Mahavamsa) were Sena Guttika, Elara, Pulahatha, Bahiya, Panayamara, Parinda, Dathiya, and so on. Similarly, in southern India, the names the ancient Tamil kings, for example, some kings Kulothunga Vikrma Chola Chola Chola, Chola Aditya and so on. Some kings were Kulasekara Pandya Pandya, Wickrama Vira Pandya, Parakrama Pandya, Sundara Pandya, and so on. Some kings were Chera Kulashekhara Varma, Rajashekhara Varma, Rama Varma Kulashekhara, Goda Ravi Varma, Bhaskara Ravi Varma, Vira Kerala, Rajasimha, and so on.

Neither the inscriptions nor the Pali chronicles mention the ethnicity of the Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka. Since we can not identify the ethnicity of these names, except to the Mahavamsa, we never knew that these non-Buddhist kings (as Sena Guttika, Elara) were Tamils. Similarly, some or most of the Theravada Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka (whose ethnic origin is unknown) were the Tamils, but never know.

This only shows that the present Sinhalese and the Tamils of Sri Lanka from two nagas speak Prakrit, Tamil Darnels (Pandyan and Chola) and all other tribes living on the island than the Vedas.

According to historians, it was only during the 9th century AD, Naga run completely disappeared from stone inscriptions and the two main groups Hela ethnic / Sihala and Demel was clear. Historians believe that the Nagas were similar to the two main ethnic groups Hela / Sihala and Demel. The archaeologist and historian Dr. Parnawitharana said: "We know almost nothing about prehistoric men native to Sri Lanka. Could have been the ancestors of the present Sinhalese and Tamils." As Professor K. Indrapala "Sri Lanka's Sinhalese and Tamils are descended from common ancestors who lived in the country for prehistoric and protohistoric and have a common history going back more than "two thousand years. If we agree with historians, callers to the Sinhalese and the Tamils of Sri Lanka today are of the same strain. What you see any evidence that Tamil identity in Sri Lanka was not only parallel to the Sinhala identity, but parallel to that of the Tamils of Tamil Nadu. This is not a simple continuation of the identity of Tamil Nadu Tamil. The Tamils of Sri Lanka's social formation and evolution is the result of people interacting with the earth Sri Lanka through its phases of history.

Analysis Sinhala writings called Vittipota, WA De Silva said that from the very beginning of the island was colonized by people from all over India. That's why those who live in this country should not mean that belong to a family or a single race.

The Sinhalese claim to be unique to Sri Lanka (no other Sinhalese Nadu) and therefore Sri Lanka is a Sinhalese. Do not forget that the Arab / Muslim Traders local married (Sinhala / Tamil) women and therefore its share of people killed in the same ancestry ancient Sinhala / Tamil. Since the non-Malay and Portuguese brought their wives, but women married local Malays and even the bourgeois also share the same ancestry. The fact is, as a career, not only Sinhalese, but also Sri Lanka's Tamils, the Muslims of Sri Lanka, Bourgeois, Malays and the Vedas are all unique to Sri Lanka have no other place on earth, the only difference is that they have adopted a single language, while the Sinhalese adopted the Sanskrit, Pali, Tamil, Vedda, very few words of unknown origin and later Portuguese Dutch English, and developed a new language (due to its mix of heavy).

1.6. Sri Lanka Ancient Heritage

Former Sri Lankan heritage, Vevas (tanks and reservoirs) Dagobas (dome enshrining sacred relics) and all other ancient massive structures were built Buddhist Nagas by Demel (no Sinhala). Irrigated rice development, a rudimentary storage system, and the technology of iron were common features development for both Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu. Tanks and fields, which are the mainstay of the kings and their armies and a large number of priests and monks, have been often be damaged by wars between the rival kings of the island with the support of the authors in the country of Chola and Pandyan or by natural forces and simple neglect. Repairs to these reserves and maintenance of irrigation and culture could not be assigned without the aid of men specially trained by the Tamil country. Sir James Emerson Tennent, Secretary British colonial government of Ceylon (1845-1850) tells us that even in his time, expertise and services of the Tamil country had to be obtained to repair reservoirs in the north central province.

1.7. Twisted Tamil Names

The Mahavamsa millanium wrote after events took place and a century after Deepavamsa said mythical / supernatural stories and legends (from the Indian epics, not mysterious kath Sihalattha) that Deepavamsa are not known and at the same time, some names and stories gone awry. Let me cite an example,

The king did not say Deepavamsa Panduvasudeva said Panduvasa. By law, British Columbia,

"It may well be an equivalent of Pali or Prakrit Pandya Vasa sense an example of the Pandyan country, a Pandya of nationality. "(BC Law, ibid. P. 52).

How-Pandu Pandu became Vasa in Deepavamsa-Vasudeva in Mahavamsa is a mystery. (Vasudeva must have been adopted in India's epic Gita). Panduka name is apparently the same import. After the death of Panduvasa (Panduvasudeva) his eldest son became Abhaya the rightful king. Panduvasudeva mother says she was the daughter of King Mada (Mada-Sanskrit Madura was the capital of Pandyan). His son was Panduka Abhaya name, the name is a combination Panduvasa names Abhaya and the best example of a mixture of Naga-Pandya. Pandukka Abhaya give your child a name Tamil Saiva Mutasa (old Siva). We are not told that he married her, but his second son, Tissa happened. His real name is not known Saiva. (Devanampiya is a title given to him by the Emperor Asoka to accept Buddhism, is not a Tamil name.) BC Law noted that the name of any Devanampiya Tissa, or Dutugemunu, the two heroes of the Mahavamsa, is in the first entries. (BC Law, ibid. P. 65-66).

True to the tradition of the first writers Buddhist Sri Lanka, the Tamil words had been twisted at times recognized the transformation of names Pali or Prakrit forms of Dravidian, Dr. Paranavitana, the first Sri Lankan Archaeological Commissioner of Sri Lanka have followed the same tradition.

1.8. Principles of language and script

The Indian / Hindu scriptures Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, etc and the Indian epics Mahabharata the Bhagavad Gita, Ramayana, etc. were written in Sanskrit (the sacred language of Hindus). Similarly, the Sri Lanka Buddhist scriptures and commentaries have been written in Pali and Prakrit / Magadhi (the sacred language of Buddhism). Theravada Buddhist monks, including the Tamils in southern India (Chola Sangha) have used the Pali language, preferably in Tamil in his writings.

One of the most important areas in which the influence of northern India have a lasting impact in southern India and Sri Lanka has been the language. Because trade between North India and South (including Sri Lanka) began to develop actively in the 1st millennium BC, the Prakrit became the lingua franca of trade. Go through the first inscriptions in South India, it seems that Prakrit had a major impact in Andhra, Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu. However, Tamil Nadu in the south almost all previous entries in Old Tamil House, some of them show the influence of prakriti. It was the only region in South Asia, where the inscriptions have been in a language that belongs to the Indo-Aryan subfamily.

Sanskrit / Indo-Aryan Prakrit language found in Brahmi inscriptions in the 3rd century before of Christ. Brahmi has been used to write early Prakrit dialects. Its use is mainly confined to the inputs of stones and rocks, caves, buildings and tombs. Although writing Brahmi is used throughout South Asia, there were regional variations. In addition, South India Special Brahmi characters needed to write special letters Dravidian, in particular Tamils.

ancient inscriptions in Brahmi Lanka has been written in Prakrit language the inscriptions of other contemporary Southeast Asia, exclusion of ancient Tamil country, but they have so many words that are not in Prakrit or Sanskrit in other parts of Southeast Asia. In early Brahmi inscriptions Lanka were all symbols of southern India Brahmi. Paranavitana, Mahavamsa version believing that the story was very naive to try to argue that the script was Brahmi Start Lanka after version Brahmi northern India, but a considerable number of them seem to be the terms and Tamil that could be easily explained that the words Tamil, drawing materials comparable to the ancient Tamil Sangam literature as well as former Tamil Brahmi inscriptions.

Iravatham Mahadevan has published 'Early Tamil epigraphy, has been included in the prestigious Harvard Oriental series, which highlights the presence of all the special sounds of letters between the first early Tamil Brahmi Brahmi inscriptions Lanka.

In the 19 th century AD, Wilhelm Geiger, who translated the Mahavamsa studied the language of the inscriptions / island at different time intervals and gave labels name. He described early Prakrit / Sanskrit spoken on the island as a Sinhalese-Prakrit, but little development of elected / Helú / language Sihala was first found in the wall mirror Sigiria eighth century AD and not before. Sanskrit, Pali, Tamil and some words of unknown origin appears to have influenced the formation / Evolution of the Chosen / language Helu.

1.9. History exceeded

The 1965 Doctoral MK Indrapala

Surprisingly, like many pseudo-scientists, including Mr. Bandu de Silva said, Indrapala was no reason to modify any claim that in 1965 his PhD was pressured ethnic heavy rewriting of history that the facts had not changed.

In any historical research is natural to change the beliefs and assumptions, because until now we have no definitive answers to many unanswered questions in the fields of archeology, history, anthropology, epigraphy and the etymology of Sri Lanka. In addition, every day we encounter many new discoveries and contribute to new historical perspectives. Therefore, on the basis of new facts, the above conclusion should be put at risk the adoption of changes. The story is an ongoing investigation with no end in sight.

For example, in the past 40 years, the pseudo-historians and researchers can Sinhalese (healers) used Mr. Karthigesu Indrapala Tamil thesis, 1965 I was not in favor of the Tamils as a guide in all their arguments / written. When the property known and renowned professor of ancient history at the University of Jaffna, the same Indrapala Karthigesu teacher retired from his profession after 30 years research, the archaeologist director / historian / epigrapher and a grant from the University. Professor K. Indrapala published a book in 2005, after 40 years of his Ph.D. 1965, when he says his doctorate is totally out of date that did not have a copy of his 1965 doctoral thesis written 40 years ago as a graduate student. It is very natural for people to change their mind about the new discoveries (not ethnic pressure) but studies are (healers) wants to continue to cite this obsolete theory Indrapala left him.

This is what Professor K. Indrapala said of his thesis in 1965:

I was planning my graduate research, the late Professor WJF LaBrooy, my revered master, and in that time head of department history at the University, informed me in the early history research of the Tamils in Sri Lanka for my doctoral thesis, for what it considered that this should be a significant gap in the known history of the island.

The thesis was carried out with the equipment that was available in early 1960.
As the excavation remains to be done, I said, many things relevant to our study … Even the inscriptions and literary works that have proved inadequate used in the reconstruction a history of settlement and successful in solving many important problems.

The thesis was presented as the first major attempt to bring together all the data available on the subject. The fact that there was a comprehensive study has been accepted. Given these limitations and difficulties, then you can say that it has added something to our knowledge History of the Tamils of Ceylon, the account presented here is necessarily incomplete and not always definitive. We have often been led state our conclusions hypothetical terms.

Needless to say, this test is totally outdated. My point of view and interpretations have changed since its completion.

More importantly, significant gains, both in terms of archaeological and historical perspective change was carried out in recent four decades.


Sastri Nilakanta

Another pseudo-historian who Sinhalese scholars still quote Nilakanta Sastri of Tamil Nadu. historical research has been Nilakanta Sastri over 50 years. According to historians and scholars in Tamil Nadu Tamil Nilakanta Sastri ability was poor and relied on others to understand Tamil literary works. Therefore, it has not been able to analyze the changing meaning of words time. They say, professional historiography in Tamil Nadu, performed during the period Nilakanta Sastri KA, rarely question the sources.


Dr. Paranavithana

Dr. Senerath Paranavitana, curator of Archaeology, was a leading figure of Archaeology, epigraphy and history Old Lanka for over fifty years during the last century. For him, the Mahavamsa was like a holy book. Instead of giving priority to archeology and epigraphy; and completing its findings with the material of the Mahavamsa, has done everything possible to interpret the archeology and epigraphy, in the light of the Mahavamsa. His research has been sided (biased) by the conclusion from (Mahavamsa), only to find evidence for its conclusion. If the archaeological / epigraphic finds no (Mahavamsa) redefined / misinterpreted by using their own theories, hypotheses, assumptions and analogies to prove that the Mahavamsa was right.

After his retirement as professor archaeological commissioner, was appointed in archeology at the University Ceylon (Sri only university at the time) for a short period. The University of Ceylon was a project for the publication of an authority Paranavitana country's history and serves as its editor Professor. Was the adoption of the Mahavamsa as your guide, especially for the first Lankan history. He himself admitted that he had fired some parts of Tamil contributor to volume in the early period of history Lanka because these parties do not meet what he considered the history Lanka (Mahavamsa).

Paranavitana teacher was a non-Buddhist, but today we have people like Ven. Ellawala Medhananda Thero, former leader of the Jathika Hela Urumaya do archaeological research, in particular, Northern Province and Eastern. Registration Tamil-old statues of Hindu deities, and other elements found in favor of the Tamils, suddenly disappearing is not a surprise.

2. The British and Mahavamsa

It is only in the 19 th century AD, the British re-discovered the Mahavamsa. The first printed edition and translation in English was published in 1837 by George Mahavansha Turnour, historian and director of the Ceylon Civil Service. German Mahavansha was completed by Wilhelm Geiger in 1912. Was then translated in English by Mabel Haynes Bode, and the translation was revised by Geiger. English historians who have written about the history of Sri Lanka also responsible for the misrepresentation of the history of Sri Lanka and Sinhalese history.

Professor K. Indrapala said in his book, "The Evolution one ethnic identity: The Tamils in Sri Lanka C. 300 a. C. at 1200 C. CE, who was in the nineteenth century under the rule British officials that the British have taken a great interest in the history of the island. The European discovery of the Pali chronicles, published the first translations of the Mahavamsa and the acquisition of information about the ancient ruins lead Colombia's first serious attempt to write the early history of Sri Lanka in the mid-nineteenth century.

2.1. Aryans and Dravidian

The "scholars" colonial Orientalist, who were enthusiastic to invent Indo-Aryan cousins in that part of the world, created myths enough this process of Brahmanism in India and Sinhalese Buddhists in Sri Lanka elitism. It was in these colonial writings, largely based on non-acceptance of the chronic criticism local, and new perspectives of the ancient history of the island began to develop. The view that the Sinhalese were the "people person" island in antiquity and that the Tamils were the invaders came to dominate the writing of colonial history. Moreover, from the Sinhala language was more of Indo-Aryan in nature, said Colombia The Sinhalese were Aryans of North India and the Tamils were Dravidians of South India. In recent years, several anthropologists and historians have shown that this perspective was to be developed in colonial writings. Only in the 19 th century AD, the Sinhalese began to believe the myth that they are Aryans of northern India and the people Sri Lanka right, where the Tamils are Dravidians and foreign.

It is important to note that the Aryan theory was not merely something imposed from up by "scholars" Orientalists. He was received with enthusiasm by most scholars who are Aryan Sinhalese flattering theory that elevates the ranks parents of their leaders. The combined result of the forces at work was the simplification of Sri Lanka Sinhalese History naughty are Indo-Aryans who came from India North in the sixth century BC and the Dravidian Tamils are immigrants who came as invaders, traders and mercenaries to snatch some promised land of the Sinhalese now. Influenced by colonial historiography, the Sinhalese said they were natives of the island (Early arrivals / indigenous), and that the Tamils were the invaders (which came later) in southern India. The facts and the existence not Buddhist Tamils during the colonial period (due after the Chola invasions Century 10), directed "scholars" 19 Europe Pali century and today take the Sri Lankan Buddhists believe that the ancient kings and Buddhists in Sri Lanka are not the Sinhalese. In Sri Lanka, any person adopting Sinhala language is ipso facto an aria. Most Sinhalese can not even think / believe that there were Tamil Buddhists beginning of the period. If they were not Buddhists remain in any part of Sri Lanka, by default, it was for Sinhalese (only) and if it had belonged to the Hindu Tamils (Only), while most Sinhalese worship Hindu gods.

2.2. Sinhala Buddhist Nationalism

The most influential figure in this field was the great German Indologist, Max Müller. According to Professor Leslie Gunawardana, researchers at the end of the century 19 in Sri Lanka took the theories of Max Muller and injected with racist Sinhala nationalist thought. One of these researchers Anagarika Dharmapala (Aka Don Hewavitarana David). Through publications such as the "Sinhala Bauddhaya", "Sinhala Jatiya, and the Journal of the Mahabodhi during the period 1909 to 1915, spread the Mahavamsa as the orthodox Theravada Buddhist Sinhalese Buddhists. He called the Buddhist Sinhalese and the only one race (Arya-Sinhala) with a pure Aryan blood.

Today, the Maha Sangha and the Sinhalese Buddhist monks are not the followers of Buddha, which Anagarika Dharmapala disciples who believed in the Mahavamsa as an orthodox doctrine Theravada Buddhist Sinhalese Buddhists. In 1908, Dharmapala said that Buddhism was "totally identified with the racial individuality of people." As Peter Schalk said: "This is probably one most of the conflicts created by public statements made in the 20 th century. There is also a statement that is prejudicial to scale national and international reputation of Buddhism. Explicitly stated that Lanka belongs to Sinhalese Buddhists and Tamil South India does. "

2.3. Buddhist monks and politics

In 1946 the Faculty approved the monastery Vidyalankar acclamation a resolution declaring that the monks have become political activists. The monks moved Vidhyālankara Dharmapalite revolution of social action is not sectarian in the people with a political ideology that the condensed language religion and state. The monks radicals formed Eksat Mandalaya Bhiksu Lanka, U.S. Organization of Sri Lanka Bhikkhu. The seeds of a highly politicized Sinhalese Buddhists were sown now. As Seneviratne said, "In mid-1950 it has become a hegemonic Buddhist Sinhalese chauvinism."

It should be noted that none of these European Orientalist "scholars" who translated and highlighted (or rather, misunderstood) texts in Sanskrit and Pali canon / Chronicle has always tried to do the same thing the ancient texts written in Tamil and wave leaves palmaryh / that are supposed to be destroyed when the Jaffna Library was burnt. Some of them have been translated by Arumaga Naval Pillai Saminathaiyar Thamotharam and still awaiting a full translation. The bias in the historiography of the colonizers British established new social inequalities, confrontation and competition. That began with Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism of the renewal movement Dharampal Anagarika to 1956 "silent revolution Urumaya and Sinhala Jathika Chinthanaya in the 1990's is interpreted as a linear teleological history, in the end, with intention of the ethnic crisis in the current time.

2.4. However, the twisted story

Continuing what has written by English, Sinhalese historians twisted and distorted and hijacked the achievements of the civilization of ancient Sri Lanka as the history of the Aryan Sinhalese new design.

MAHAVANSAYA – Sinhala version was edited by Ven. Sumangala Thero Hikkaduwa (aka Don Gunawardhane Nicula). Hikkaduwa Vie Sumangala with Don Andris of Batuvantudave Silva amended, modified, added and modified according to the Mahavamsa Sinhalese race.


In the reliability of the Mahavamsa by Wilhelm Geiger, the author says, I see the last chapter 101 which was added by Sumangala and Batuwantudawa, the authors of the first edition.

2.5. Singhalese Confused

tomisinformation most likely due lack of clear information on the latest decades, Sinhala Buddhist nationalists trying many different versions of his story, some of them contradict each other.

There is a group that creates lots of in the Mahavamsa, which almost 2,500 years, men and Vijay 700 (Aryans) were from northern India, they took them wives Pandya Tamil (Dravidian) in South India and has trained the Sinhalese race.

Another group, the followers of Anagarika Dhammapala believe the same but without the Tamil connection, ie the Sinhalese are pure Aryans North Indian and not mix with anyone.

Then there is another group known as the movement Jaathika Chinthanaya (national consciousness), founded by Gunadasa Amarasekera (Sinhalese writer and poet and dentist) who believe, about 2,500 years ago, Vijay Singh and his clan (the Aryans) were from northern India and arrived in Hela Diva mixed with the tribes living in Sri Lanka Hela and formed a nation under King Pandukabhaya Sinhalese. From this cross came from the Sinhalese word for all the descendants of these immigrants (+ Hela = Sinhala Singh) and the Sinhala race / nation and was the king Tissa Thero Mahinda period brought Buddhism to Sri Lanka and the Sinhalese king Tissa Devanampiya convert to Buddhism and Sinhalese Buddhist society was created.

Today, another group of Sinhalese Buddhists by name Hela Havula (Sinhalese organization founded literary Munidasa Cumaratunga) created a new theory (Siv + Hela = Sinhala) between the Sinhalese and Ravana totally disagree with the Mahavamsa say that Sinhala people is the birthplace Sri Lanka (even before Ravana) of the four tribes called HeLa-Siv (Deva, Naga, Yakka migrants and Rakhsasa) and not India as mentioned in the Mahavamsa. His theory is based purely on the Hindu epic Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Some of them even want to add text Lankavatara Mahayana Buddhist Sutta which is based on Sinhalese Buddhist Ramayana.

None of the previous versions have archaeological evidence / epigraphic Sri Lanka and India and historians today do not accept anything above that is true. Until now, the real history of Sri Lanka (Sinhalese and Tamils) is not likely to be found and are still waiting for the new archaeological discoveries to any progress.

Continued … … … … … ..

Prof. Giuliano Noci – International Relations

International Politics on the World Stage, Brief 8th Edition

International Politics on the World Stage, Brief 8th Edition


This concise text provides students and instructors with a comprehensive overview of world politics, inviting them in a straightforward and accessible way to explore international relations and its new challenges. A hallmark of the text is the authors’ position that politics affect the lives of all of us, and that the individual can have an impact, whether small or large, by being politically awar…

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