Archive for Politics

Confirmation Politics Definition

confirmation politics definition
Politics (AP Government question)?

I am writing with a group of a 2000-word essay on this topic. The policy has been defined as "Who gets what, when and how. "Since the 1990s, which was particularly true on the Republican and Democratic parties that have exceeded the limits of this definition by engaging in a protracted conflict. To support and provide specific examples of this thesis by examining the following elements: redistribution and campaigns electoral fraud and the elections, confirming the political polarization in the Congress party ideas can, especially for some of the campaigns and elections? Any help is greatly appreciated, I'm lost. 10 points better question! : D Thanks in advance

the Congress Party in power, came to power by spending large amounts black money in elections. It played the caste card to win elections. is a right-wing party, but the songs on the mantra of welfare of people who have cheated. This game is full of courtiers, who are now trying to YSJagan Mohan, the son YSRAJASEKHAR Fire Reddy, who was killed in a helicopter crash. books written by N. INNAYYA, a rationalist and an ardent follower of M.. N. Andhra Pradesh Roy policy will help.

The book of Jane 6


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Confirmation Wars


Confirmation Wars


$19.99


In Confirmation Wars, Benjamin Wittes examines the degradation of the judicial nominations process over the past fifty years. Drawing on years of reporting on judicial nominations, including numerous interviews with nominees and sitting judges, he explains how the process has changed and how these changes threaten the independence of the courts. Getting beyond the partisan blame game that dominates most discussion of nominations, he argues that the process has changed as an institutional response by Congress to modern judicial power and urges basic reforms to better insulate the judiciary from the nastiness of contemporary politics.

Majoritarian Politics Example

Metropolitics: Why Local Government Is The Solution To Preserve American Democracy (And Society)

It’s quite unfortunate that American national elections are perceived as a Partisan Death Match through which 51% of the nation gets to impose its personal beliefs on the hapless 49% minority. America’s Culture War (Kulturkampf for you Germans out there) is still raging, and is increasingly being fought over national social policy. The federal government recently has been arrogating even more authority to dictate our social and economic affairs, whether in defining marriage, inhibiting free speech, or restricting various other forms of free expression. As a result, the livelihoods and interests of every American are increasingly at stake – and are increasingly disregarded in favor of the preferences of powerful special interests. National policy is becoming even more contentious, fractured, and overflowing with candidates promising that they will do everything for everyone – and then proceeding to do nothing for anyone. The libertarian, however, knows there is a better way.

The United States, according to the Constitution, was never intended to allow such majoritarian domination. Instead, our federal system is intended to allow states to experiment with different policies, effectively serving as a laboratory through which new social or economic policies can be tested for the benefit of those who want them. The Constitution’s 10th Amendment guarantees this. It says, “Powers not delegated to the federal government…are reserved to the states, respectively, or to the people.”

Many issues discussed by our aspiring presidential candidates, such as education, marriage, and social policy, are traditional spheres of state authority, allowing for state residents to choose between different approaches to the problem. While heroes of federalism like my governor, Arnold Schwarzenegger, have taken strides to assert state independence in the face of the Federal Leviathan, the political trend clearly continues toward federal control. What results is bad national policy (see No Child Left Behind), Red State/Blue State divides in which opposing factions argue for completely contradictory values, and many other divisions in American society that endanger the cohesion of the American people. The solution to this national problem is to reverse the Big National Government trend and allow more local control by the people themselves, not less.

In today’s pluralistic and highly mobile society, cities (“the people”, according to the 10th Amendment) should have an increased ability to set their own policies – especially on contentious issues such as social policy. The principles and advantages of federalism still hold – it allows for local needs, encourages policy innovation, and makes government more responsive. The cities that provide effective and popular policies in their communities will find an easier time attracting residents, business and other investment. It’s the Constitutional idea, but with 21st century advancement.

Now, this is a fine idea in the abstract, my readers are undoubtedly thinking, but how will it work in reality? Glad you asked.

San Francisco, CA | Gay Marriage

It’s possible that diverse local policy might help bring a truce to some of the most contentious Culture War issues. San Francisco recently attempted to recognize gay marriages. Their attempt was rebuffed by the state, who informed them that only state law sets marriage policy. But why should this be the case? Why can’t San Francisco (or any other gay-loving municipality, for that matter) be allowed to recognize gay marriages within their city limits? It clearly has no effect on the marriage of any person outside the city limits of San Francisco (the putative worry of conservatives), and allows the local achievement of a civil right (the concern of libertarians) without requiring national, or even state sanction. Such a localized policy will undoubtedly prove what this organization has argued all along – that the value of marriage is determined by the spiritual commitment of the two married parties, not by public policy.

Keene, NH | Gun Control

In Keene, New Hampshire, the residence of our libertarian friends over atFree Talk Live, it is perfectly legal to appear anywhere in public carrying a firearm in plain view. It’s a very raw form of the right to bear arms, guaranteed by the Constitution to preserve personal security. The policy works great in New Hampshire, where the most likely reaction to your brandishing a weapon in public is for your neighbor to compliment it, show you his, and invite you to the shooting range on the weekend. But I have an apartment in downtown Los Angeles, California, where the same act would likely affront the ‘hood dignity of an erstwhile felon who is much more likely, in response, to toss you a one-way ticket to the morgue through the barrel of his AK. That’s not to say there aren’t places in California where the public display of one’s chrome four-fifth could work as well as it does in Keene. There certainly are, and those cities (undoubtedly, most of them are in Orange County) should be able to experiment with various firearm measures to achieve the correct balance of self-defense and public safety. It’s an obvious solution. Who knows more about how to keep your local community safe – the people who live there, or Barack Obama?

Denver, CO | Drug Policy

Recently, the city of Denver passed a referendum, entirely legalizing marijuana possession for personal use for those 21 and over. The ordinance, however, faced a fate similar to San Francisco’s attempt to liberalize marriage, and ended up ignored by the Denver police who continued to enforce the stricter state laws on cannabis possession.

Why should Denver be prohibited from respecting the preferences of its own people? Weed Haters are usually concerned about liberal state laws on cannabis attracting hordes of bohemian stoners into the state, presumably raiding suburban donut shops, sitting in parks, movie-hopping, and laughing uncontrollably in public, among other potential crises. But such Puritan fears counsel even more local control over drug policy, thus justifying Denver’s legalization. If 54% of Denver’s voters think the ability to toke up in the privacy of one’s home is worth the potential emigration of Humboldt residents to the Mile High City (no pun intended), shouldn’t they be allowed to deal with the consequences?

Drug War advocates need to see legalized, recreational cannabis use not causing the mass hysteria and social devolution they think it will. Many of these opponents rely on outdated agitprop like Reefer Madness, or past government warnings about cannabis (such as the fact it “causes White women to seek sexual relations with Negroes”) to inform their opinions, having zero basis in fact or experience. However, nothing is instructive like reality. Cities should be given a chance to show the incredible ability of individual Americans to handle freedom and liberty – yes, even the freedom to smoke a little weed.

Miami, FL | Language

This organization recently advocatedfor the adoption of English as America’s national language, for several good reasons that we outlined. But a common objection to this policy is that it harms immigrant communities. Local municipal policy would eliminate that objection, however. Cities like Miami, where Spanish is spoken more often than English, would be free to make Spanish and English co-official languages of the region. Thus, communities of non-English speakers could still be engaged in local government and receive local benefits, while English-speaking communities would still remain free to pursue linguistic assimilation and other important policies. Es muy facil, amigo.

Berkeley, CA | Economic Policy

Under our proposed system of local policy, the most economically “progressive” cities would have a greater ability to set local economic policy. If Berkeley wants to offer a nation-leading welfare program, it should be able to provide a $20,000 stipend for every Californian to take up residence in the city, or perhaps universal, high-quality health care, and it can then alone deal with the mass unemployment and non-existent labor productivity, among other economic consequences.

Progressives like George Lakaff, I believe, retain a shred of legitimacy only because their benighted economic policies have no chance of being implemented, and thus they can’t be proven wrong. Allow cities to implement local socialism, for example, and you achieve two things to fix this quandary. a) You make progressives stop whining on National TV, since they finally can create the Worker’s Paradise they so desire in their own backyard, and b) You prove the superiority of market capitalism, once the local tax base in Progressivopolis collapses down to nothing, Atlas Shrugged style. Sounds like a win-win situation to me.

About the Author

The author of The American Evolution, Matt Harrison is the founder and executive director of The Prometheus Institute, Los Angeles, CA, a nonprofit public policy institute. He has authored more than 200 articles, many of which can be found on www.ThePrometheusInstitute.org, has been a guest on several talk radio shows, and a guest blogger for CNN.    Harrison earned a BBA in political science from University of Miami and has completed requirements on his law degree and master of public policy degree from the University of Southern California.

The Prometheus Institute is a public policy organization dedicated to discovering independent policy solutions to reduce the burden of government on the people, and creatively marketing these ideas to the lay public of the United States, in order to create the political demand for positive change.

Mini-lecture: A hung Parliament explained


Majoritarian Cities: Policy Making and Inequality in Urban Politics


Majoritarian Cities: Policy Making and Inequality in Urban Politics


$91


Neil Kraus evaluates both the influence of public opinion on local policy-making and the extent to which public policy addresses economic and social inequalities. Drawing on several years of fieldwork and multiple sources of data, including surveys and polls; initiatives, referenda, and election results; government documents; focus groups; interviews; and a wide assortment of secondary sources, Kraus presents case studies of two Midwestern cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Gary, Indiana. Specifically, he focuses on several major policy decisions in recent decades concerning education, law enforcement, and affordable housing in Minneapolis; and education and riverboat casino development in Gary. Kraus finds that, on these issues, local officials frequently take action that reflects public opinion, yet the resulting policies often fail to meet the needs of the disadvantaged or ameliorate the effects of concentrated poverty. In light of citizens’ current attitudes, he concludes that if patterns of inequality are to be more effectively addressed, scholars and policymakers must transform the debate about the causes and effects of inequality in urban and metropolitan settings.

Civil Disobedience Is Not Our Problem

Civil Disobedience Is Not Our Problem

Civil Disobedience Is Not Our Problem

Howard Zinn

“Civil disobedience is not our problem. Our problem is civil obedience. Our problem is that people all over the world have obeyed the dictates of leaders of their Government and have gone to war, and millions have been killed because of this obedience…Our problem is that people are obedient allover the world in the face of poverty and starvation and stupidity, and war, and cruelty. Our problem is that people are obedient while the jails are full of petty thieves… (and) the grand thieves are running the country. That’s our problem.”

Howard Zinn

Aristotle Politics Sparknotes

Aristotle Politics Sparknotes

The Timeless Story of Rustam and Sohrab from Shahnama Part 1

Aristotle Politics Sparknotes

Politics Gun Control

politics gun control

Gun control? How do I know that fighting crime instead?

The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees all Americans the right to bear arms. It has never been right ambiguous? What are the weapons? What does it mean to endure? At least with the First Amendment, we know exactly where we stand: freedom of expression. I could not be clearer. But the right to bear arms the Second Amendment leaves open to different interpretations. We need a license to carry a weapon concealed firearm. Do we need a knife permission? No. However, the two can and often do, result in death. We have a gun or rifle or machine gun or a machete, and dozens of other tools for killing, even of our own hands. Thus, control of weapons is a debate in our country with no sense, unless you extend the ban or the acceptance of all instruments of death.

Statistics based on the population, www.xist.com States United has the highest crime rate in the world price. Every day 30 people in the United States are killed by a firearm. This means that 11,000 people. However, there are over 25,000 murders per year in the United States. In other industrialized countries, Germany each year has 381, France 255, Britain 68, Australia 65 and Japan 39. On the basis of the population to make a fair assessment is firearms in the murder of America 25 916 people each year. Compared with Canada, where the number is 1 in 190 387 and 1 864 546 in Britain, and only 1 in 3,254,508 in Japan, the United States is the area to kill the world.

Gun expert Robert J. Spitzer, a professor of political science at SUNY Cortland and author of The politics of gun control points ethnic groups of America. "" Our culturally diverse background, composed of many different ethnic groups, has religious, social, and the rivalry between groups, suspicion, hatred, fear and violence sometimes, "said Professor Spitzer." Most other Western countries, by contrast, are more homogeneous than the U.S. "

Which brings us back to the thesis that America does not need a law on firearms control, you need a law to control crime.

Concern number one in America today is security: security against terrorists, drug safety and drug dealers violent gangs safety and security of those whose evil ways affect our lives and the lives of our children every day. However, we are not sure about. Our police are overwhelmed by the size of the enemy as our troops in Iraq. Without security, we are prisoners of our own society. Safety is more important than any other issue, because without it, we stop living. We just want to exist. First, you must feel safe and be safe before we can think of to cure our ills of others. With 14,000 homicides each year be without firearms (11,000), we have to look at the bigger picture.

We need to build more high security prisons Max. Enough for anyone convicted of first degree murder or a crime three times, was sent to the rest of life without parole. (There is no reason to spend millions of dollars on appeals each sentenced to death, until the last ten years or more when he was not shown to have a deterrent effect and where housing is significantly less expensive.)

In a federal partnership with some U.S. manufacturing companies, these companies that would work prisoners to pay only minimum wage. The product you create, then the public will be integrated into American commerce. In exchange for this work, the prisoners pay government for accommodation and food, and all the security, medical and utility costs. If the inmate has dependents, their salaries reflect deduction. Isolated from society, prisons would be a society itself. Far from us forever.

Crime control in place to control firearms, is stricter and more deterrent than other solutions have failed. This not only deter murder weapon, murder deter any type of weapons, including rape, assault compounded – all crimes. This would reduce Crime and get these criminals off the streets of America once and for all, except the American taxpayer less implementation Laws: The money will be used instead to build and staff these new prisons. Our security is what we have to care – you have to be careful of – before doing anything else. We owe it to our children.

We teach our children to be proud of America. We teach our children the safety first. We teach our children about right and wrong, good versus evil. What you think of our children when they see the murder after murder in the news and on the street in fear of a shooting, or abducted? We are raising a society born of fear and mistrust. So we need a tougher crime legislation. It is why we must – we have no choice – to take our country back from these criminals.

Yes, Americans should be able to have firearms in their safe houses, as long as it is responsible and locked away from children. Yes, Americans should be able to have guns for food. However, remain the weapons of mass destruction and must be registered with personal background checks. There is absolutely no need or reason to any person other than staff police and military have led violent assault weapons to kill the masses. We have compromised by common sense. We understand and respect the true intention of our ancestors when they signed the second amendment to the Constitution.

All you need is the determination, the strength of our elected representatives, adopt more stringent laws that we can finally take our country and turn it into a haven of peace, once more for all American women and children.

Obama’s Nuance on Gun Control


Politics of Gun Control


Politics of Gun Control


$38.71


The new edition of this classic text covers the latest developments in American gun policy, including shooting incidents plaguing the American landscape – especially Sandy Hook, the Colorado theatre shootings and the tragic death of Trayvon Martin – placing them in context with similar recent events. The incidents described in the book sparked a wave of gun control legislation at local, state and …

Politics of Gun Control


Politics of Gun Control


$45.95


The new edition of this classic text covers the latest developments in American gun policy, including shooting incidents plaguing the American landscape – especially Sandy Hook, the Colorado theatre shootings and the tragic death of Trayvon Martin – placing them in context with similar recent events. The incidents described in the book sparked a wave of gun control legislation at local, state and national levels, some of which was successful, some doomed and all controversial. At the national level, President Obama put his political capital on the line to push for new gun control measures, only to see them shot down by Congress. Robert J. Spitzer has long been a recognised authority on gun control and gun policy. His even-handed treatment of the issue – as both a member of the NRA and the Brady Center – continues to compel national and international interest, including interviews by the likes of Terry Gross, Tom Ashbrook and Diane Rehm. This sixth edition of The Politics of Gun Control provides the reader with up-to-date data and coverage of gun ownership, gun deaths, school shootings, border patrols and new topics including social media, stand-your-ground laws, magazine regulation, and shooting-related mental health initiatives.

Politics Revision Sites

politics revision sites

I half GCSE in citizenship and review sites?

All I know is that we have made in Human Rights, the queen and government and one of the topics is "power politics and the media:" I am the way Edexel

I did two years ago, its a piece of cake if you go by what is in the class and common sense have to go =) xxx

CNN: Conspiracy Theorists Are Potential “Suicide Warriors” & Are Mentally Disturbed


The Site of Petrarchism: Early Modern National Sentiment in Italy, France, and England (Parallax: Re-visions of Culture and Society)


The Site of Petrarchism: Early Modern National Sentiment in Italy, France, and England (Parallax: Re-visions of Culture and Society)


$8.49


Drawing upon poststructuralist theories of nationalism and national identity developed by such writers as Etienne Balibar, Emmanuel Levinas, Julia Kristeva, Antonio Negri, and Slavoj Zizek, noted Renaissance scholar William J. Kennedy argues that the Petrarchan sonnet serves as a site for early modern expressions of national sentiment in Italy, France, England, Spain, and Germany. Kennedy pursues …

Camp Sites


Camp Sites


$24.95


Reading across the disciplines of the mid-century university, this book argues that the political shift in postwar America from consensus liberalism to New Left radicalism entailed as many continuities as ruptures. Both Cold War liberals and radicals understood the university as a privileged site for “doing politics,” and both exiled homosexuality from the political ideals each group favored. Liberals, who advanced a politics of style over substance, saw gay people as unable to separate the two, as incapable of maintaining the opportunistic suspension of disbelief on which a tough-minded liberalism depended. Radicals, committed to a politics of authenticity, saw gay people as hopelessly beholden to the role-playing and duplicity that the radicals condemned in their liberal forebears. Camp Sites considers key themes of postwar culture, from the conflict between performance and authenticity to the rise of the meritocracy, through the lens of camp, the underground sensibility of pre-Stonewall gay life. In so doing, it argues that our basic assumptions about the social style of the postwar milieu are deeply informed by certain presuppositions about homosexual experience and identity, and that these presuppositions remain stubbornly entrenched despite our post-Stonewall consciousness-raising.

Right Wing Politics Usa

right wing politics usa
Ahmed Rehab: Miss USA Scrutiny Indicates Weird Obsession with Islam
Just one day after Rima Fakih, an Arab-American Lebanese Muslim from Michigan, won the Miss USA pageant, her faith took center stage, and sure enough, some found a way to “link” her to terrorism.
Fuck Fox “News” 66: Defending Right Wing Violence


Piety & Politics: The Right-Wing Assault on Religious Freedom


Piety & Politics: The Right-Wing Assault on Religious Freedom


$2.99


The Reverend Barry Lynn explains why the Religious Right has it all wrong.In the wake of the 2004 presidential election, the Religious Right insisted that George Bush had been handed a mandate for an ideology-based social agenda, including the passage of a “marriage amendment” to ban same-sex unions, diversion of tax money to religious groups through “faith-based initiatives,” the teaching…

Right-wing Politics


Right-wing Politics


$27.95


Right-wing Politics

Cordillera Politics Blogspot

Matago Tako Lusan!: Cordillera Day 2010 Message from Dr. Claver


Foyer Cordillera


Foyer Cordillera


$2413.39


Foyer Cordillera

European Politics 17th Century

european politics 17th century

Kochi: The Queen of the Arabian Sea

SANJAI VELAYUDHAN

Introduction:

Kochi also known by its anglicized name Cochin is located in Kerala, the southern State in India. It is the second largest city in Kerala after the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. It is located in the district of Ernakulam and about 220 kilometers (137 miles) far from the capital. With the largest urban agglomeration in the state, the city has always been one of the principal seaports of the country.  Heralded as the Queen of Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the Arabian Sea coast since the 14th century. Kochi merchants began trading in spices such as black pepper and cardamom more than 600 years ago. In many ancient scriptures and history books based on Kochi, one finds that ancient travelers and tradesmen frequented the city from time immemorial including the Arabs, British, Chinese, Dutch, and Portuguese, who came here mainly for the purpose of trade have left indelible marks on the history and development of Cochin. Many of these groups went on to reside in the city for sometime before migrating away to other lands. Kochi thus has been a cultural melting pot due to successive waves of migration both within India and from outside over the course of several millennia. The pan-Indian nature is highlighted by the substantial presence of various ethnic communities from different parts of the country and many people including Anglo-Indians who are products of cross-breeding with foreigners. The city once had a large Jewish community, known as the Malabar Yehuden—and now referred to as Cochin Jews. The nos. of this group has dwindled and the foreign blood has been substantially diluted with local marriages. Retaining the Jewish knack for business, this group has figured prominently in Kochi’s business and economic strata.

Over the years, Cochin has emerged as the commercial and industrial capital of Kerala and is perhaps the second most important city on the west coast of India (after Mumbai). Cochin has a world class port and international airport that links it to many major cities worldwide. Its strategic importance over the centuries is underlined by the reference-Gateway to Kerala. Kochi is a prosperous city and also known as the financial capital of Kerala. Surrounded by the Western Ghats on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west, it is a breathtakingly beautiful and scenic land. Kochi one of the best places to travel and it also boasts of hundreds of islands, some even uninhabited.  This important and beautiful port city been rated as the top three tourist destinations by the World Travel & Tourism Council and featured in National Geographic Traveler’s ’50 greatest places of a lifetime’.

Kochi has a lot of remnants from the past still clinging on. As European a city as one can find in India, it has Fort Cochin built by the Portuguese on an island offshore that seems to be pulled straight out of the 16th century with narrow, winding, canal-lined streets, 500 year-old Portuguese houses, cantilevered Chinese fishing nets lining the northwest shore of the island, a 16th century synagogue surrounded by ‘Jew Town,’ which was once home to the flourishing Indian Jewish population, the oldest church in India and a palace that was built by the Portuguese, renovated by the Dutch, and eventually was given to the Indian Raja of Cochin. The most famous symbol of Kochi is the row of Chinese fishing nets at the mouth of the harbor leading to the Arabian Sea in Fort Kochi, the oldest part of the city. In Ernakulam, where modernity has ushered in skyscrapers and shopping malls, the old quarter — the Fort Kochi area and Mattancherry area — maintains a colonial air and has building that have been designated as a part of Kochi’s heritage . Vasco House in Fort Kochi located on Rose Street, is believed to be one of the oldest Portuguese houses in India. Vasco da Gama is believed to have lived here. This house features European glass paned windows and verandahs. Da Gama reached India in the autumn of 1524, but he died in Kochi only three months after his arrival. Even in death, Da Gama remained a traveller. Though his remains were removed from Kochi and buried in Goa, it was subsequently removed and sent to Portugal to be interred in the Church of Vidigueira. However, the coffin remained there until 1880, and it was finally transferred to a marble sepulcher in the church of the Monastery of the Jerónimos at Belém, outside Lisbon.  Kochi had the honour of hosting the great explorer-colonist and the fact that his final exploration of another world began here associated the city with him forever. Despite the forward march of modernity, the city retains its distinct colonial heritage and is a lovely blend of tradition and modernity.

Etymology:

Etymologically, many theories exist pertaining how Kochi derived its name. Ancient travellers and tradesmen referred to Kochi in their writings, variously alluding to it as Cocym, Cochym, Cochin, and Cochi. According to some accounts, traders from the court of the Chinese ruler Kublai Khan gave Cochin the name of their homeland.  The Chinese connection seem to obvious from the trademark fishing nets prevalent in the area known as china-vala or Chinese nets. Another theory is that Kochi is derived from the word Kachi meaning ‘harbor’. Accounts by Italian explorers Nicolo Conti (15th century), and Fra Paoline in the 17th century say that it was called Kochchi, named after the river connecting the backwaters to the sea. After the arrival of the Portuguese, and later the British, the name Cochin stuck as the official appellation. The city reverted to a closer Anglicization of its original Malayalam name, Kochi, in 1996. However, it is still widely referred to as Cochin, with the city corporation retaining its name as Corporation of Cochin.

Geography:

Kochi is located on the southwest coast of India at 9°58?N 76°13?E? / ?9.967°N 76.217°E? / 9.967; 76.217, spanning an area of 94.88 square kilometers (36.63 sq mi). The city is situated at the northern end of a peninsula, about 19 kilometers (12 mi) long and less than one mile (1.6 km) wide. To the west lies the Arabian Sea, and to the east are estuaries drained by perennial rivers originating in the Western Ghats. Much of Kochi lies at sea level, with a coastline of 48 km. This lovely seaside city is flanked by the Western Ghats on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west. Its proximity to the equator, the sea and the mountains provide a rich experience of a moderate equatorial climate. It is separated into numerous distinct areas particularly close to each other. These include the mainland areas of Ernakulam City (where the train stations to the rest of India leave and arrive), Willingdon Island, Fort Kochi (the primary tourist enclave), Mattancherry, Kumbalangi and outlying islands. These distinct neighborhoods arose as the result of a mixed past.

Brief History:

The port city of Kochi has a very colorful and rich history. The city occupies a very strategic position geographically, being flanked by the Western Ghats on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west. Cochin’s trade links with Chinese and the Arabs is reputed to be at least 2000 years old. Christianity in this city dates back to the apostle Thomas, who, as tradition holds and evidence suggests, landed in India in AD 54 to spread the Gospel. Kochi was the centre of Indian spice trade for many centuries, and was known to the Yavanas (Greeks) as well as Romans, Jews, Arabs, and Chinese since ancient times. The earliest documented references to Kochi occur in books written by Chinese voyager Ma Huan during his visit to Kochi in the 15th century as part of Admiral Zheng He’s treasure fleet. There are also references to Kochi in accounts written by Italian traveller Niccolò Da Conti, who visited Kochi in 1440.

It may be said to have originated as an important port in 1341 AD when the flooded Periyar River destroyed a world-renowned port, at Kodungallur, just north of Cochin and created an all-new harbor in Cochin, which is today one of the finest natural harbors on the West coast of India. Cochin’s busy port assumed a new strategic importance and began to experience commercial prosperity after the flood. The Portuguese penetrated the Indian Ocean in the late 15th century. Vasco da Gama, discoverer of the sea route to India, established the first Portuguese factory (trading station) there in 1502, and the Portuguese viceroy Afonso de Albuquerque built the first European fort in India there in 1503. It was the first European fort in India. The British settled here in 1635 but were forced out by Dutch in 1663, under whom the town became an important trade center. It came under the sovereignty of Haider Ali, the militant prince of Mysore in 1776, but was surrendered by his son Tipu Sahib to the British in 1791.

There is also evidence pointing to the presence of Jews since at least AD 388. Legend holds that the Jews first settled in India during the time of King Solomon, when there was trade in teak, ivory, spices and peacocks between the Land of Israel and the Malabar Coast, where Cochin is located. Others put their arrival at the time of the Assyrian exile in 722 BC, the Babylonian exile in 586 BC or after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 BC. No reliable evidence exists, but most contemporary scholars fix the date at some time during the early middle Ages. The earliest documentation of permanent Jewish settlements is on two copper plates now stored in Cochin’s main synagogue. Engraved in the ancient Tamil language, they detail the privileges granted a certain Joseph Rabban by Bhaskara Ravi Varma, the fourth-century Hindu ruler of Malabar.

The earliest account of Kochi is derived from the records made by the Chinese traveler, Ma Huan. Even in other documents belonging from the same period, the account of Cochin history prior to the Portuguese rule is quite vague. As per the available information, the city gained its reputation of being a port city only after the collapse of the Kulashekhara kingdom. In 1102 CE, Kochi became the seat of the Kingdom of Cochin, a princely state which traces its lineage to the Kulashekhara Empire. According to many historians, it came into existence in 1102, after the fall of the Kulashekhara Empire. The King of Kochi had authority over the region encompassing the present city of Kochi and adjoining areas. The reign was hereditary, and the family that ruled over Kochi was known as the Cochin Royal Family (Perumpadappu Swaroopam in the local vernacular). The mainland Kochi remained the capital of the princely state since the 18th century. However, during much of this time, the kingdom was under foreign rule, and the King often only had titular privileges.

Occupied by the Portuguese in 1503, Fort Kochi was the first European colonial settlement in India. It remained the capital of Portuguese India until 1530, till they opted for Goa as their capital. This Portuguese period was a harrowing time for the Jews living in the region, as the Inquisition was active in Portuguese India. The time during which Cochin was under the Portuguese rule is very interesting. It is said admiral, Pedro Cabral was sent by the Portuguese king to set up a factory at the city. The Raja of Cochin succumbed to the demand of the admiral predominantly to negate the Zamorins who ruled the Malabar region. Zamorins were the dominant power in the region and was constantly breathing down the neck of the King of Raja for political influence within the Kochi Kingdom. With the arrival of Vasco Da Gama, peace was made with the Zamorins after which the Portuguese built Fort Manuel to protect their factory from any sort of attack. Once the Portuguese shifted their capital to Goa, their strategic intent shifted from Kerala and was centered on it.

 

The Portuguese rule was followed by that of the Dutch, who had allied with the Zamorins in order to conquer Kochi. The Dutch rule over Cochin lasted from 1663 to 1795. They defeated the Portuguese and disposed the Cochin Raja. After landing confidently at Njarakal, they went on to seize the Pallipuram fort, which they later gave to the Zamorins. Cochin prospered under the Dutch rule by shipping pepper, cardamom and other spices, coir, coconut, and copper. In between by 1773, Kochi has slipped into the hands of the Mysore King Hyder Ali extended his conquest in the Malabar region and briefly forced Kochi to become a tributary of Mysore. Later the authority was recaptured by the Dutch. They fearing an outbreak of war on the United Provinces signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 with the United Kingdom, under which Kochi was ceded to the United Kingdom in exchange for the island of Bangka. However, there are evidences of English habitation in the region even prior to the signing of the treaty. The port city of Cochin had become highly developed during the time of the British rule in India In 1866, Fort Kochi became a municipality, and its first Municipal Council election was conducted in 1883. The Maharaja of Cochin, who ruled under the British, in 1896, initiated local administration by forming town councils in Mattancherry and Ernakulam. In 1925, Kochi legislative assembly was constituted due to public pressure on the state.

Conclusion:

Many written accounts clearly state that Cochin was invaded by foreigners and colonized many times. The king remained the titular head. The pungent smell of pepper and fragrances of other spices beckoned the invaders. The intra-struggles between the dominant powers of Kerala resulted in the weakening of its politico-military institutions and resulted in the dominance by the colonial powers. Religion was also liberally used to consolidate colonial hold resulting in numerous conversions primarily by the European powers and to Islam by Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. These conversions resulted in a fragmentation of the native mind and this enabled the erstwhile powers to continue their exploitation of the natural resources of the state as well as its manpower.

Contemporary Kochi:

In 1949, Travancore-Cochin state came into being with the merger of the erstwhile Cochin and Travancore states. Travancore-Cochin was in turn merged with the Malabar district of the Madras State. Finally, the Government of India’s States Re-organisation Act (1956) inaugurated a new state — Kerala — incorporating Travancore-Cochin (excluding the four southern Taluks (smaller administrative unit) which were merged with the contemporary state of Tamil Nadu), Malabar District, and the taluk of Kasaragode, South Kanara.  On 1 November 1967, exactly eleven years since the establishment of the state of Kerala, the corporation of Cochin came into existence. The merger leading to the establishment of the corporation, was between the municipalities of Ernakulam, Mattancherry and Fort Kochi, along with that of the Willingdon Island, four panchayats (Palluruthy, Vennala, Vyttila and Edappally), and the small islands of Gundu and Ramanthuruth.

A growing centre of shipping industries, international trade, and tourism and information technology, Kochi is the commercial hub of Kerala, and one of the fastest growing second-tier metros in India. Kochi’s economic growth was accelerated after the introduction of economic reforms in India by the central government in the mid-1990s. Since 2000, the service sector has revitalized the city’s stagnant economy. The establishment of several industrial parks based on Information technology (IT) and other port based infrastructure triggered a construction and realty boom in the city. Over the years, Kochi has witnessed rapid commercialization, and has today grown into the commercial capital of Kerala.

Kochi is now a major destination for IT and ITES companies, ranked by NASSCOM as the second-most attractive city in India for IT-based services. Availability of cheap bandwidth through undersea cables and lower operational costs compared to other major cities in India has been turned to its advantage. Various technology and industrial campuses including the government promoted Info Park, Cochin Special Economic Zone and KINFRA Export Promotion Industrial Park operate in the outskirts of the city.

 

Kochi is the headquarters of the Southern Naval Command, the primary training centre of the Indian Navy. The Cochin Shipyard in Kochi is the largest shipbuilding facility in India. The Cochin fishing harbor, located at Thoppumpady is a major fishing port in the state and supplies fish to local and export markets. To further tap the potential of the all-season deep-water harbor at Kochi, an international cruise terminal and several marinas are being constructed.

Exports and allied activities continue to be important contributors to the city’s economy. Kochi’s historical reliance on trade continues into modern times, as the city is a major exporter of spices and is home to the International Pepper Exchange, where black pepper is globally traded. The Spices Board of India is also headquartered in Kochi. The Cochin Port currently handles export and import of container cargo at its terminal at the Willingdon Island. A new international container transshipment terminal—the first in the country—is being commissioned at Vallarpadam, which is expected to be play a vital role in India’s economic aspirations.

Kochi also has an oil refinery—the Kochi Refineries (BPCL) at Ambalamugal. Central Government establishments like the Coconut Development Board, the Coir Board and the Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) have head offices located in the city.

Highlights of Kochi:

Willingdon Island: Towards the early 20th century, trade at the Kochi port had increased substantially, and the need to develop the port became necessary. The English harbor engineer Robert Bristow was brought to Kochi in 1920 under the direction of Lord Willingdon, then the Governor of Madras. In a span of 21 years, he transformed Kochi as one of the safest harbors in the peninsula. This man-made island was created in 1933 by sand dredged while deepening the backwaters for the Cochin Port, under the direction of Sir Robert Bristow. A while back the Airport, Sea port and the railway terminus (Cochin Harbor Terminus) were situated on this island. Today, it is the home of the Cochin Port and the headquarters of the Southern Naval Command.

Marine Drive: A stroll along the long tree-lined coastal pathway that lines the backwater is well worth the time spent, especially late afternoon or dusk. The bustling backwaters, dotted with fishing boats, speedboats, ships, tankers and passenger boats, can be observed from this walkway that lines the coast. The greatest pleasure is to stand and watch when the monsoon lashes Kerala-it’s a awesome sight by itself.

Cherai Beach: This lovely beach ideal for swimming is located on the north end of Vypeen island, one of the many small islands just off the mainland. The beach is lined by gorgeous coconut groves and paddy fields. Vypeen can be reached by land or by boat.

Parikshith Thampuran Museum: The Kings of Cochin used to conduct their durbars (grand banquets) in this impressive building located within the Durbar Hall grounds. It was later converted to a museum which has a treasure trove of archaeological findings and relics including old coins, sculptures, oil paintings and murals. The building has been taken over by the Kerala Lalitha Kala Academy and now houses the Gallery of Contemporary Art. All the royal exhibits of the museum have been moved to the Hill Palace museum.

Museum of Kerala History, Kalamassery: The museum takes visitors mainly through the anthropological and cultural history of the geographical unit called Kerala. In line with modern techniques, it has on display spectacular audio-visual exhibits depicting the history and culture of Kerala along with many life size statues of ancient tribal people, famous personalities and several paintings depicting Kerala history. To understand Kerala, a visit to this museum is a must.

Palliport (Pallipuram) Fort: The first and the oldest surviving European fort in India, built by the Portuguese in 1503. It is situated in Pallipuram on Vypeen Island.

Hill Palace, Tripunithura: Built in the 19th century by the Raja of Kochi, this palace served as the seat of the Raja of the Kochi province. The palace has been converted into a museum displaying a fine collection of royal articles displaying the wealth and splendour of the Rajas of Kochi, including the throne and the crown. The museum also houses a large collection of archaeological findings. Hill Palace is located 16km east of Cochin in Tripunithura, a satellite town of Cochin.

Bolghatty Palace located on the Bolghatty Island: This Dutch palace is situated on Bolghatty Island is just a short boat ride away from the mainland. The palace has been converted to a hotel run by the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation (KTDC). The island has a tiny golf course and the panoramic views of the port and the harbor, makes it an attractive picnic spot. Frequent boat service is available from the mainland.

Dutch Palace (Mattancherry Palace), Mattancherry: The erroneously named Dutch Palace was originally built by the Portuguese. Later, in 17th century, the Dutch modified it and presented it to the Raja of Kochi thus usurping its ownership. Coronation of many Rajas of Kochi used to be held here. The palace has a fine collection of mural paintings depicting scenes from the Hindu epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. The palace is located in Mattancherry.

Jewish Synagogue and Jew Town, Mattancherry: The synagogue, built in 1568, is magnificently decorated by Chinese tiles and Belgian chandeliers. This is a small yet beautiful building. Giant scrolls of the Old Testament can be found here. It is located near the Dutch Palace in Mattancherry. The local markets nearby sell beautiful trinkets and the famous Kerala lock-Manichitrathazu.

Santa Cruz Basilica, Fort Kochi: The original church, situated in Fort Kochi, was built by the Portuguese in 1505 and named as a cathedral in 1558. The British colonists destroyed the cathedral in 1795. The current structure was built in 1905 and raised to the status of a basilica by Pope John Paul II in 1984.

St. Francis Church, Fort Kochi: It is the oldest church built by Europeans in India. On his 3rd visit to Kerala, Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese trader who reached India from Europe by sea, fell ill and died in Kochi. He was buried in this Church till his remains were taken back to Goa for burial on the way to his final resting place in Portugal. In spite of the removal, his burial spot inside the church has been clearly marked out.

© Sanjai Velayudhan.

Endnote: The author would like your feedback-both bouquets & brickbats. Write to me- sanjai.velayudhan@gmail.com.

 

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Driver Ball Position

PurePoint Golf Instruction – Driver Ball Position – Driver Golf Swing

I often see a number of amateurs prepare for their driver golf swing by walking up, after they have teed the ball up, they just take a step back and they address it. They grip the golf club and they address it, and they sort of just plot their feet down wherever they land, but let me tell you the proper way.

This way you’ll be able to get the ball in the correct position more often than not. After you have the golf ball and you’ve gripped it and you have addressed it, then you’ll just look down, take a peek down, and if this golf ball is running towards the left heel, then this is correct.

If you look down and you see the golf ball is a little too far forward off your left, that’s too far forward and you’ll probably see that the shoulders are aimed too far to the left.

On the other hand, if you look back down and you think the ball is too far back in your stance when you put this shaft along you, you’ll be aiming way off to the right.

So, after you’ve addressed the golf ball, all you have to do to get ready for your driver golf swing is bring the shaft up and lay it along your shoulder line, and it should be going in the direction you want to go with it.

If you get it too far back in your stance at address, you’ll wind up aiming your shoulders too far off to the right.

And if you get it off the left heel, this should be proper for most people.

Give that a try the next time out.

Bobby Eldridge is the Head Instructor for the PurePoint Golf Academy where he teaches “The Simple Golf Swing” theory. You can check out PurePoint Golf instructional DVDs at Eldridge is the Head Instructor for the PurePoint Golf Academy where he teaches “The Simple Golf Swing” theory. You can check out PurePoint Golf instructional DVDs athttp://www.golfswingguru.com/index15.htm

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